Saturday, August 31, 2019
201005894| ENG 373 ASSIGNMENT| BOIKANYO MAKAUSU| 1. A PROTEST FROM A BUSHMAN POEM THEME: SADNESS The theme of the poet A Protest From a Bushman is SADNESS. The poet is expressing disapproval or objection to something, thus how his fellowman treats them and undermine the tribe, culture & tradition. TONE MORAL INDIGNATION The tone of the poem is typically a reactive emotion to anger over perceived mistreatment, insult or malice. It is somehow a sense of injustice. The bushman is more concerned with how his fellow countryman treats their tribe.He now feels that his native land not good/ not enjoyable to them as they are now treated as slaves and are now seen filthy. They are seen as a nobody hence this is their native land rather they are not refugees. The tone is the same through the poem. STRUCTURE The poem has 11 stanzas with 111 lines in total. The first stanza has 10 lines followed with the second stanza with 13 lines. The third stanza has 5 lines, seven on the fourth stanza while 19 lines on the fifth. The sixth stanza with also seven lines 15 lines with the seventh stanza and followed by3 lines on the eighth stanza.Then four lines on the ninety stanza. The second last stanza has sixteen lines while the last one has 12 lines. POETIC DEVICES REPITITION From stanza four the poet use repetition of the words, Ã¢â¬Å"life is tremulous like a drop of water on a mophane leaf. Ã¢â¬ to emphasize that life is shaking or shivering with the bad talks about the bushman by the fellow countryman. The bushman uses repetition to truly show that these talks makes them nervous, that is they donÃ¢â¬â¢t feel free in their native land. PERSONIFICATIONLife is personified to a person as it is said to be shivering/shaking hence it is something thatÃ¢â¬â¢s not human like. It cannot shiver nor shake. He shows his anger by showing the unfairness of life. 2. THE ORATION OF CHIEF JOHN MADAWO NSWAZWI VII THEME SADNESS The theme of the poem The oration of Chief John Madawo Nswazwi i s sadness. The poet is being sad and not happy about how people are being treated. He is using Chief John Madawo Nswazwi giving out a speech to his tribe or nation addressing them about the suffering they were treated with and promising them that it is now over.He shows his sadness by saying, Ã¢â¬Å"We have become slaves Worse than dogs and pigsÃ¢â¬ By this he clarified how cruel they were being treated as animals. He also explained how heartless they were treated in front of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s presence thus being weeped showing the immoral signs they discovered. TONE PROTEST The tone of the poem is a formal and solemn declaration of objection. Chief Nswazwi VIII is objecting or protesting against mistreatments of human rights to his fellow beloved countryman and women. The slave suffering of the countryman had put anger on him they now do not enjoy fruits of the country.He uses the African slave trade where missionaries mistreated the blacks as animals to explain their suffering which he feels is against the will of the almighty. The chief is angry to chief TshekediÃ¢â¬â¢s law where villages are being destroyed and reduced to ashes by his tyrannical rule. By saying Ã¢â¬Å" I shall come back fiercer than the burning sunÃ¢â¬ The chief promises the fellow countryman & women that if it happens he dies and the slave trade continues he would come back from the dead and display an intensive aggression to help his tribe. STRUCTURE The poem has 10 stanzas with 99 lines in total.In stanza I the poet expresses the feelings of anger that they have been mistreated but that shall stop and that the war brought shall kill the enemies themselves by using the chief. He continues in stanza 2 & 3 that upon his rule suffering would be changed to freedom and stop war with all his strength. He continues from stanza stating the impropriety of other chiefs, how they overexcite power up until stanza 7. In the last stanza the chief promises people that although they have lived throug h obstacles they would live a happy, freely and not disturbed life. 3. GABORONEThe aim of the poem is to briefly describe how the city Gaborone appears to be. In other words what Gaborone is and what happens around the city. However he does this by mainly focusing on the negative aspects in describing the city. It is a clear and short description of the picture behind the city Gaborone. The theme is perfectly reviewed throughout the poem, and to begin with the poet describe the climatic conditions of Gaborone in the first two lines to mention that Gaborone characterizes of high temperature or sunny conditions (Irritating Heat) as well as polluted air or not fresh air (Stale Air).He then continues to describe what happens around Gaborone from the third line to mention the fast moving and growing cockroaches, then large number of poor people (Hungry Smiles). The Poet continues with his description by mentioning foreign investors without identity found in Gaborone and also misleaders w ho feel overly self important (Pompous Misleaders). And halfway of the poem the poet says that Gaborone characterizes of misleading politicians (Visionless Politicians), violated house-wives in this case women abuse and also very poor artists.And towards the end he mentions that in Gaborone one may find rude and strict landlords and relatively increasing number of dealers. In concluding the poem he says Gaborone with its belly about to explode as to say that now population is increasing rapidly, the city is now expanding and hence growing into a huge city. STRUCTURE The poem comprises of only one stanza containing 20 lines, and each line starts by the word Gaborone. TONE The tone of the poem is quite a tone of disappoint or rather I will say the poet if fed up with what the city has turned into.So he writes this with a depressive mood. POETIC DEVICDES However the poet used some poetic devices during his writing such as rhyme, repetition and Hyperbole. He uses rhyming schemes such as the double rhymes like Hawkers and Workers, Mongers and Lovers. And also the triple rhymes like Churchgoers, Investors and Misleaders. Throughout the poem, the poet use repetition device in which he begins each line by the word Gaborone and there is also a hyperbole where by an outrageous exaggeration is used for effect, for example Turbo-Charged Cockroaches. 4.Outside A Hotel in Gaborone THEME The Poem put its focus on the desire or chase for money that people have and on the other hand it shows the power, strength and control that money can posses. This theme is being illustrated throughout the poem, and to start with the poet is trying to show us the picture behind a person who has money. He writes Ã¢â¬ËSplash of Strident Colours, Splash of Covetous Smiles' as to show craving for possession or desire for wealth. So this is how a rich person would appear. He then continues to the second stanza to mention Ã¢â¬Å"eyes that lust moneyÃ¢â¬ s to say Minds that have a desire for m oney. And then he continues to the third stanza until the last one to illustrate what money does or what one would achieve with his/her wealthy being. and by doing so he write Ã¢â¬Ë Purr of sleek cars' as to say Slow, continuous murmuring sound produced by attractive shinny cars driven in a group or a flock in chase for quick money. So this is basically what the poet is illustrating towards the end of the poem TONE So during the in analyzing the poem, it has appeared that the poet wrote this poem in a sad tone or mood as to show how disappointed he is.He is being let down by the impact that money has toward people around his city, Gaborone. STRUCTURE The Structure of poem comprises of 4 stanzas, the first stanza until the third one having a tercent each and the fourth stanza with quintet. POETIC DEVICES The Poem also comprises of some poetic devises such as rhyme, imagery, metaphor, simileys and. Firstly the rhyme, the poet uses sight rhyme that is word that are quite similar in s pelling but rather differ in pronunciations. For examples words like Cars and Curs, Flesh and Flash.He then applies Imagery, which is a sentence that uses the human senses to describe a vivid mental picture. For example he wrote Ã¢â¬Å"eyes that lust moneyÃ¢â¬ as to illustrate the picture of someone who has desire for money. He then applied the metaphor and simileys as to compare objects that are not alike, for example Ã¢â¬ËPurr of Sleek Cars' and Ã¢â¬ËLike Curs on HeatÃ¢â¬ . Here he is comparing the sound made by cars to the sound made by cats and again he compares an Undesirable dog on heat to Cars, as they are being driven by their owners in search for money. 5. SEROWE REFLECTONS STRUCTUREIt is made up of seven stanzas. The title is relevant in the sense that Serowe that the Poet talks about is different from the one he knew, the one he grew up in therefore it creates or forms on image of the then Serowe. POETIC DEVICES Metaphor Ã¢â¬ËThere is a permanent roar of your g reat warriorsÃ¢â¬â¢. TONE The tone is sad because the Poet seems not to appreciate the changes in Serowe. There is so much change that he cannot accommodate. Serowe has become some that he is not proud of. SUMMARY From the poem we can tell that at first Serowe was a place that the Poet liked and enjoyed as his village.It was rich in culture but now Serowe has turned into something else, people use dongas to relief themselves; it is no longer safe for people to walk as night as people are being killed for sacrifices which is believed to bring wealth. Even the Kgotla [main] of Serowe makes people to think deeply about it whether it still potray the meaning of the Kgotla. Serowe has heavily fallen, one may say on the broken back just like the Poet and he continues by asking what could have went wrong with Serowe, the question is posed in such a way that the Poet want to find a solution in restoring the old Serowe.
Friday, August 30, 2019
There is hardly any other country in the world than India which has a great diversity of culture, religion, language, tradition, community etc. People live and think in terms of their respective religions, faiths and tongues, and seek to serve their selfish ends without thinking of the national good. Such thinking is dangerous and is bound to lead to the disintegration of the country in the long run. The need of the hour, therefore, is to fight the forces of disunity and disharmony and to work ceaselessly for the achievement of national harmony and peace. Communal harmony is the coming together of all the communities of the country and living together with a sense of brotherhood and equality, irrespective of their caste, creed, religion etc. We should sink our personal differences in larger interests of the country and adopt a common approach to national problems if we want to achieve the laudable goal of national integration and communal harmony. Attrocities are being committed in our country, day in and day out, in the name of caste, sect, community, social and economic differences and divergent political veiwpoints. Extremists and terrorists who have let loose the reign of terror in some parts of our country and have killed hundreds of innocent and peace-loving citizens, are being lionised as martyrs. It is our bounden duty, as patriotic citizens of our country, to fight tooth and nail against these anti-social elements who are bent upon destroying the unity and integration of the country. So our goal is clear, to put a stop to the process of disintegration that has lately started raising its ugly head and to accelerate the process of communal harmony, solidarity and oneness that has recently received a setback. How to achieve this is the main problem? We have to make all our brethren feel that the whole country belongs to them, that there is no high and low in our country, that there is no distinction between the
The quotation referred to is the last line of shelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s famous poem, Ã¢â¬Å"Ode to the West WindÃ¢â¬ . In the poem, the poet identifies himself with West Wind, which, to him, is both the destroyer and the preserver. The poet has dead thoughts which he would like to be scattered by the West Wind like dead leaves. In place of these dead thoughts, he wants new and fresh thoughts to be born in him. As from an extinguished hearth, ashes and sparks are spread by the wind so the poet wants his message of hope to be delivered to the frustrated mankind. As winter is sure to be followed by spring, in the same way, dark and unhappy days of life are bound to be followed by a period of happiness and joy. Winter is the symbol of desolation and barrenness whereas spring stands for joyousness and fruitfulness. The quotation assumes significant application to the present state of affairs. The man today is passing through a period of miserable existence. The days of darkness and frustration constitute the life of man. The world today is collapsing into a helpless state of boredom. The weariness, fret and fever of life have made man to deduce, Ã¢â¬Å"where but to think is to be full of sorrowÃ¢â¬ . We are crumbling under the mounting pressure of defeatism and self-frustration. Today various factors of life have made man morbidly tired of himself. In the midst of intellectual, moral and spiritual bankruptcy, the forces of optimism though bleak, appear to be the only sustaining force. We in our frustration are made to think that life is not entirely devoid of joy and happiness. It is wrong on our part to lose faith in the ultimate goodness of things. We must realize that in the course of life good and evil days follow in succession. Each follows the other as night follows the day. Indeed, it is human nature to welcome joys and condemn sorrows. But we must bear sufferings with patience and fortitude in the hope that as spring follows winter, joy will follow sorrow. To be able to be the streak of silver lining that edges the threatening clouds of despair is the prerogative of only a few. Most of us only concern ourselves with the present and blink at future. Our vision is circumscribed by the difficulties and problems which confront us. The limits of the immediate cripple us. We wish but dare not hope. We work but dare not expect. We are apologists in anticipation and defeatist in our performance. The buoyant spirit of hope and happiness is lacking in us. It is essential that we cultivate the spirit of hopefulness. Optimism is the attitude of life which must be formed. An optimistic attitude is the healthy sign of life and struggle. It makes us self- reliant and grant fixity of purpose. It infuses a new spirit in our timid hearts and injects a vitalizing energy in our veins. Instead of being mere puppets in the hands of chance, faded notions and sordid illusions, it makes us persons of indomitable will and, lofty aspirations. It takes away passivity and grants pertinacity of efforts. It teaches fortitude, patience and perservance. It is rightly said, Ã¢â¬Å"Practice begets facilityÃ¢â¬ therefore, it is better to wear out than to rust out in inactivity. Victor Hugo rightly said, Ã¢â¬Å"People do not lack strength, they lack willÃ¢â¬ .
Thursday, August 29, 2019
The Individualized Education Program - Essay Example When a student undergoes assessment on whether they need special education, they undergo a series of assessment tests. The first of these is visual and hearing tests. The screening for this test is necessary to examine bad performance, which may have resulted from difficulties in hearing or clear eyesight. Once this is completed, a test of intellectual ability follows. An intelligence quotient (IQ) test or simply a regular test for students of similar age and class is administered to check the intellectual level and ability. Achievement on schoolwork and even extracurricular activities is carried out to find the areas of strength and weaknesses. Parents provide the developmental history of the student, which is compared against the formal stages of development of other students. Lastly, the social and behavioral functioning is tested, where closer patterns of socialization such as more engagement in extracurricular activities are examined and recommended. The teacher's evaluation is the first step to assess the student's performance. According to Friend, teachers have experiences and knowledge of a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior and weaknesses/strengths in comparison to classmates. The teacher has to collaborate with the Intervention Assistance Team, which includes the general teacher, special education teacher, speech language pathologist, and school nurse. Parents, with guidance and supervision from the special education teacher, are the right party to handle the decision on the setting of the boyÃ¢â¬â¢s special education.
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
SDLC methodologies - Assignment Example In recent scenario, it is applied within the organizations, as it facilitates time-efficient strategy. This paper intends to provide a brief explanation related to the advantages and disadvantages of these applications in the modern day scenario within a technological project. Advantages and Disadvantages of JAD Advantages JAD delivers optimum satisfaction to its customers by accelerating the design of the product. The application of JAD within any technological project ensures quality and fosters effective team work with the customers. Furthermore, JAD is implemented to create a new product design on the basis of customerÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective. This particular software facilitates reduction of developmental and the maintenance costs. Additionally, JAD assists the facilitator in collection of high quality information within a short tenure. Any inconsistency can be resolved easily with the help of the mechanism provided by JAD. Furthermore, JAD implementation assist in deriving multipl e opinion as it encompasses Ã¢â¬ËCustomers Decision MakersÃ¢â¬â¢ and IS staff, which enhances the quality of the particular technological project (Rosenblatt, 2013). Disadvantages The organization using the JAD process must have a clear knowledge of its usage. It can only ensure effective and useful results, when the concept is clear to the users of this program. This process requires ample amount of labor in planning and its application. For performing various activities related to this process, technically trained employees are required. In order to facilitate efficient usage of JAD, it is the responsibility of the organization to impart training to the required staff. Additionally, the stakeholders of the organizations must ensure sufficient time and labor towards the implementation of the process. In comparison to the traditional method, JAD is quite expensive and burdensome (Rosenblatt, 2013). It has been ascertained that if the team extends the size of the project, JAD app lication becomes complex in nature. In essence effective application of JAD software ensure qualitative product, which is to be acquired from the concerned technology project. Advantages and Disadvantages of RAD Advantages Application of RAD initiates accelerated speed during the process, which reduces the deliverable time. RAD increases the speed by incorporating Ã¢â¬ËComputer Aided Software EngineeringÃ¢â¬â¢ tools, which facilitate conversion of required material within a short period. Furthermore, implementation of RAD ensures qualitative deliverables. Additionally, RAD ensures quality deliverables by inculcating the users within the analytical context and the design stage. Moreover, RAD identifies lesser risks involved in the project due to the prototyping method Applied within (Core Partners, n.d). Disadvantages Although RAD being a very cost efficient project, it cannot be applied for the smaller projects as, cost determination in this particular application remains ambigu ous.. In this process both the customers and the developerÃ¢â¬â¢s participation is needed. If not done then the entire process would be unsuccessful. The major drawbacks of this process starts with the initiation of prototype and lasts till the application runs. Furthermore, to implement RAD, it involves a huge amount of resources and costs, which might not be possible to be afforded by the small and the medium-scaled organization (Core Partners,
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Risk Management - Essay Example These risks are then incorporated in the bones of the Ã¢â¬Å"fishÃ¢â¬ (Lin, 2009). This is effective as it assists the person carrying out the analysis understand the critical threats that exist and thus work to eliminate all the risks starting with these ones. This method is effective in reducing the running costs because there is the prior identification and elimination of the risks. There is also the qualitative risk identification and assessment. In this, there is the red light and green light rating where there is the analysis of the risks that will have the greatest impact. After this, there is the analysis of the major project objectives where there is then the changing of the various features regarding the goals where they can be altered (Lin, 2009). This is helpful in that it reduces the amount of defects that may occur. Urgency assessment in identification assists in understanding where along the project continuation the risk may occur. Scheduled delays are the ones best resolved through this method of risk identification and
Monday, August 26, 2019
Adam de la Halle - Essay Example Although his poetry is indicative of possible aspects of his life, it is impossible to distinguish what is art, what is fiction, and which of the different aspects reflect his life ad which reflect that of his patrons. He died in 1288 and it is estimated that he was in his late forties or early fifties at this time (Marshall and de la Halle). Le Jeu de Robin et Marion According to Dane, Ã¢â¬Å"Le Jeu de Robin et Marion is among the first secular vernacular dramas. It is in part a dramatization of the medieval lyric pastourelle (a quasi-dramatic lyric type involving an encounter between a knight and peasant)Ã¢â¬ (49). The piece was written in French and represents the social opposition in which the story of Robin Hood is most often thematically written. The presentation of the play is only available through hypotheticals, a given representation not having been passed down in history, although it is considered the historic example of the beginnings of the comic opera. The music is h ighly rhythmic and representative of medieval troubadour music. Fi maris The chanson is courtly music that is Ã¢â¬Å"about love, rather than love songs in any Romantic senseÃ¢â¬ (Marshall and de la Halle 3). ... He did not, like a Romantic poet, reach out for the universal from a basis of personal experienceÃ¢â¬ (Marshall and de la Halle 4). Fi Maris is written to express a witty look at infidelity and is written in French. Its monophonic tone and rhythmic background with harmonic vocals supply the form of the piece. Je muir, je muir dÃ¢â¬â¢amourete Je muir, je muir dÃ¢â¬â¢amourete is a rondeau, meaning that it had a rigid structure in which the verse and the refrain are repeated, from which the poetic rhythm scheme can be translated as AbaAabAB. Formed from the monophonic traditions, this piece is a gentle and sentimental work that has a beautiful introduction. The repetition sets up a sense of the emotions of the work. It is in French, with a gentleness that brings forward a meaning that is beyond the lyrical translation. Works Cited Dane, Joseph A. Abstractions of Evidence in the Study of Manuscripts and Early Printed Books. Farnham, England: Ashgate Pub, 2009. Print. Fi Maris. You tube.com. 24 September 2010. Lumina Vocal Ensemble. 11 June 2011. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NnDZrJLJ2uk Je muir, je muir dÃ¢â¬â¢amourete. Youtube.com. 26 July 2010. Quellidelgiardino. 11 June 2011. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d8MbPkdIppc Le Jeu de Robin et Marion. Youtube.com 17 May 2010. Cowboybepopp444. 11 June 2011. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n_ENI8s6tgY &feature=related Marshall, John H. and Adam de la Halle. The Chansons of Adam de la Halle. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1971. Print. Claudio Monteverdi Claudio Monteverdi was born in 1567 and died in 1643 and was a composer, singer, and musician playing the viola da gambe. His work can be considered for its transitional position between the Renaissance
Sunday, August 25, 2019
How Roche Diagnostics Develops Global Managers - Essay Example To become a global manager a person must have a combination of experience, education, and exposure to foreign locations. Being bilingual or speaking several languages is a great skill to have for a global manager. The responsibility for producing global managers lies in the human resource department of a corporation. The HR department has to recruit global managers and it must also develop in-house talent to become the future leaders of an organization. Developing talent internally has tremendous benefits for a company because it helps improve the employee retention rate of the firm. The participation of the executive management team is necessary to design an effective global management training program. The CEO must be involved in the process because he is a person that can influence the aspirations of a young talented businessperson to become a global leader. My career choice is business administration. Global leaders are needed in business organizations due to the fact that intern ational expansion has become a strategy that is used more than ever before by business organizations. In the United States many companies have started out small. For instance Starbucks started as a single coffeehouse that bought the Starbucks brand along with six stores. Today the firm has over 16,000 outlets worldwide. This massive international growth would not have been possible would the presence of global leaders. A lack of global leadership can be detrimental to a business organization. The managers of businesses must have basic knowledge about global affairs. For instance foreign exchange monetary fluctuation should be monitored by managers making purchasing decisions. If the currency of a country goes up by 30% in a month, this type of information would be important to know to stay away from buying goods from such a place that is facing inflationary forces. A lack of global leadership can also inhibit the ability of a manager to make decisions on how to market a company glob ally through the use of e-commerce. Most companies in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s marketplace cannot rely solely on the domestic marketplace. The current affairs and policy changes of countries must be understood by global managers. If a country makes a product illegal a firm that does not keep up with changes in international laws could get into legal troubles if it does remove its product from a country that banned its use. The United States government must get more involved in the development of global leaders. There are numerous ways in which the government can contribute towards the cause. For instance the government could develop an incentive program that would pay companies 50% of the travel expenses associated with training and development programs for global management. Another way the government could help is by offering more grants and scholarships for graduate students studying international business. The Federal government will let students borrow up to $138,500 to complete a gradua te degree (Studentaid, 2011). This type of access to financing helps, but a lot of adults are not willing to absorb so much extra debt when they have to pay a mortgage, other debt payments, bills, and living expenses for themselves and their families. At the undergraduate level the government has an excellent scholarship program called Pell Grant. The government could create a similar grant program for business graduate students
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Cultural Materialism - Essay Example "It is based on the simple premise that human social life is a response to the practical problems of earthly existence" (Harris, 1979). The writings of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels are of great influence with this issue of cultural materialism but then it was somehow distinct from Marxist dialectical materialism or sometimes called historical materialism which talks about the notion that Marxism is a synthesis of philosophical dialectics and materialism, and also different from philosophical materialism. Works of Thomas Malthus had encouraged Harris to consider reproduction of equal importance. The research strategy was also influenced by the work of earlier anthropologists including Edward Tylor and Lewis Henry Morgan who, in the 19th century, first proposed that cultures evolved from the less complex to the more complex over time. Leslie White and Julian Steward and their theories of cultural evolution and cultural ecology were instrumental in the reemergence of evolutionist theories of culture in the 20th century and Harris took inspiration from them in formulating cultural materialism. (Harris, Marvin. 2001 ). "Harris, Marvin, 1927-, An American anthropologist who was born in New York City. Graduated at Columbia with a degree of A.B on 1949; took his Ph.D. on 1953. A member of the faculty of Columbia from the years 1952 to 1981, he became the chairman of the anthropology department from 1963 to 1966. He then became a graduate research professor of anthropology at the University of Florida in Gainesville on the year 1981. Harris's major research has consisted of community studies in Latin America and ethnologies of Africa. He was very influential in the development of the theory of cultural materialism. He wrote Patterns of Race in the Americas (1964), The Rise of Anthropological Theory (1968), Cannibals and Kings (1977), America Now (1981), Cultural Materialism (1979), Good to Eat (1986), and Our Kind (1989)." (Slider Encyclopedia) Dr. Marvin Harris is considered to be a generalist with an interest in the global processes that account for human origins and the evolution of human cultures. Due to his interests in cultural anthropology, Dr. Harris assumed the role of an anthropological historian theoretician. His work with cultural materialism took him to the Islas de la Bahia, Brazil, Mozambique, Ecuador, India and East Harlem. Dr. Harris shared his knowledge of cultural anthropology with the world through the publication of 16 books. They include Cows, Pigs, Wars, and Witches and Cannibals and Kings. He also authored an introductory anthropology college textbook with multiple editions titled Culture, People, and Nature. Upon the completion of his previous publications, he composed a series of essays concerning modern human behavior based on our origins according to evolution which he has titled, Our Kind. Dr. Harris died in Gainesville, Florida on October 25, 2001 2001. (Students in an Introduction to Anthropology Class, 2001) BOOK REVIEW Cultural materialism is a systems theory of society that attempts to account for their: origin, maintenance and change. Cultural Materialism is based on two key assumptions about societies. First, the various parts of society are interrelated. When one part of society changes, other parts must also change. This means that an institution, such as the family cannot be looked at in isolation from the economic, political,
Friday, August 23, 2019
Independence of Women in Marriage in the Medieval Era - Essay Example Furthermore, since a man writes her prologue, we cannot help but think about why he wrote it. This imaginary character gives Chaucer a chance to address several subjects that might have been forbidden during his time. By making use of irony and wittiness, Chaucer is able to construct statements regarding women and how they are dealt with. It is ought to be noted that Chaucer was definitely seeking to embody a woman's voice. Actually, by creating the Wife of Bath, we can presume he wanted to produce a memorable personality in her. In her Prologue as part of "The Canterbury Tales" by Geoffrey Chaucer, The Wife of Bath offers readers a complex portrait of a medieval woman. On the one hand, The Wife of Bath is shameless about her sexual exploits and the way she uses sexual power to obtain what she wishes. Alternatively, by doing precisely these things she is bearing out unconstructive stereotypes regarding women and showing that women are manipulative and deceiving. Although her performances might at first appear to be uprising against the male-dominated culture in The Canterbury Tales, and more commonly, the medieval era for women, there is very slight that she does that is in fact revolutionary or making powerful women of her time. Based even just on her introduction in "The Canterbury Ta... be seen as a parody of sorts since she embodies a number of negative female characteristics including stupidity and arrogance; deceitfulness, and lewdness. Although she is striking back at men it is not for any deeper reason other than personal profit. It appears that in this section of the prologue to the Wife of Bath's tale, Chaucer wants his readers to laugh at this character rather than admire her for her proto-feminist stances on life and marriage. If the wife character in the Wife of Bath is meant to destroy the label of women, one could visualize that she would employ in intellectual and informed discussion with some of the constituents of her party. As it positions, however, the nearest she comes to this is by presenting her twisted consideration of the Bible. Rather conceitedly she declares in one of the significant quotes from The Canterbury Tales (and The Wife of Bath's Tale particularly), "Men may divine and glosen up and down / But well woot I express withouten lie / God bad us for to wexe and multiplye / That gentil text can I wel understone" (lines 26-30). While it can be found in the Bible that humans should procreate, it is worth noting that she prefaces this statement with a few words about how men sit and interpret the Bible. In her Prologue in the "Canterbury Tales" by Chaucer, the Wife of Bath is claiming that she too is capable of doing this and that the text is not beyond her reach. Yet, the setback with this is that she is not confirming anything about her cleverness; she is simply trying to prove or defend her loose actions along with the word of God. The Wife's symbolic techniques, however unscrupulous, achieve the desired results. The spectators cannot present instantaneous counter-arguments, and if we visualize her in the dramatic condition
Thursday, August 22, 2019
A Tragedy that Resulted from the African Diaspora - Research Paper Example However, the concept of African Diaspora resulted when the West Africans regained their traditional customs, and reformed their religion, language, and culture. However, they have not been able to regain that identity that they lost in the slave trade. This loss of identity has made them suffer from racial discrimination since the time they were transported into the Western hemisphere (Berkin et al. 2011). It was not planned, but was a natural course of action. The Diaspora has given rise to anti-black sentiments all around the globe. These sentiments are not only for African-Americans, but for all blacks anywhere in the world, including African, Caribbean, and otherwise dark people. There is an interesting history of a mish-mash of African identity in America. This paper tends to discuss the theory of cultural materialism in relation to loss of identity in African Diaspora, and strives to answer the complex question regarding how the African Diaspora has created an impact upon the A frican identity throughout history. The anthropological theory of cultural materialism has been presented by the iconoclastic anthropologist, Marvin Harris (1927-2001). Erickson and Murphy (2008, p.148) state in their book that, Ã¢â¬Å"Cultural materialism addresses a central problem for scientific anthropology: people can be both subjects and objects of scientific investigation.Ã¢â¬ This means that people have the right to think as they like, and say about them as they wish. Where the true knowledge resides, is answered by Harris in two domains. One is mental domain, and the other is behavioral domain. Mental domain is based on what people think, and the behavioral domain is based on what people actually do. The Diasporic sense of blackness relates to cultural materialism in that, the mental domain makes the Africans fight back for their lost identity, while the behavioral domain is based on how they behave in the society, and how the society understands their behavior. This beh avioral domain is what has been the reason for labor market discrimination or racial discrimination that the African-Americans have been seeing through ages (Mason, as cited in Conrad, 2005, p.141). The question that arises now is- How the African Diaspora has affected the African identity throughout history? Thesis: Africans lost their identities in the African Diaspora. Anti-thesis: Africans regained their identities in the African Diaspora. Synthesis: Although Africans have made struggles to regain their traditional customs, religion, and cultural practices in the new world, yet they have been unable to find their lost identities, due to which they have been subject to racial discrimination since the slavery trade till date. To start with, letÃ¢â¬â¢s define who a slave is. A slave is a person who is owned by another person for labor, and who does not have an identity of his own. Does this definition mean that Africans should always be understood as objects of ridicule, not havi ng identities of their own, and meant for slavery of white people? This question has yet not been answered even after the end of the period of slavery. Black people in America are yet supposed to suffer from discrimination and a loss of identity, in all physical, mental and social terms. Nothing has been done ever, or can be done, to make them reform their true identities with which they lived in their own homeland. Affirmative action policies and anti-racism actions cannot bring
Pre-school children Essay I carried out my observation on a group of pre-school children consisting 1 boy and 2 girls for 13 minutes in the morning free play session. These children were about to do leaf and twig printing for the first time. The equipment that was provided was yellow paint, brown paint and green paint all of these were in small paint trays. There was also sugar paper for the children to print their leaves on. There was also various sized leafs and twigs in a small tray. Each child went and put their aprons on. Then they came and sat sown around the table on the chairs. I explained to them what they have to do and I demonstrated this by dabbing a leaf into the paint and printing it onto a piece of sugar paper. Then I got a piece of twig and dabbed it into the paint and printed it onto the sugar paper. The children listened to me carefully and then they started to their printing. A picked a large leaf using her right and looked at it, and then she said wow, look at how many colours this leaf has, 1, 2, 3 different colours. Next she carefully lifted another large leaf she dabbed it into the green painted. Next she printed the leaf onto the large piece sugar paper. R picked up a twig and he stroked it into the brown paint; next he stroked the twig onto the piece of sugar paper and whilst he was doing this he said this paint is going in lines, it looks like chocolate, weeeeehhh. Beside this K picked up a leaf and dabbed it into the yellow paint. K rubbed the leaf into the yellow paint, next he lifted the leaf from the yellow paint and placed the leaf in the green paint, and again he rubbed the leaf and said while doing this he excitedly said I am mixing colours. Next I asked the children where do leaves come from? A quickly answered they come from trees. R added then they fall off the trees. K also added twigs come from trees as well. K said Look, I made a nice picture, she also added I have got 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 leaves printed. Soon after R picked up a leaf and said loudly this leaf is red, yellow and brown. A picked up a twig and using both of her hands she rolled it into the green paint, she next rolled the twig onto the sugar paper. A picked up 3 different sized leaves and placed them onto the sugar paper and said this one is tiny, this one is a little bit bigger and this one is the biggest. R then said excitedly look my twig has made patterns. A leaned over to have look at Rs picture. A said it hassss! . Then she looked at her picture and said look! My leaves have made patterns in the middle. Next K held up her paper and said I am finished! . She placed her paper on the drying rack and took her apron off, washed her hands and went to play with some toys. R and A also said that they had finished they placed their pieces of paper onto the drying rack. Next they removed their aprons and washed their hands and went to play. E6 E7 E10 I carried out my observation on a group of morning children of the pre-school for a total of 13 minutes approximately whilst they had a free play. I observed how a group of children play with natural materials and noting how it helps them to learn. While I was observing this small group of children playing I noticed that this activity helps them to learn about the knowledge and understanding of the world. I also noticed that they were interacting and communicating really well with each other. You can view this by reading my observation in E5. But we must remember that each child develops at their own pace. This group of childrens ages range from 3:6 years to 3: 9 years. The Foundation Stage Curriculum states Knowledge and Understanding of The World; children notice and comment on patterns (2000, pg89). This statement was from the green area stepping stone and this shows me that this group of children are at the correct developmental stage. But we must remember that each child is an individual. Also The Foundation Stage Curriculum states Mathematical Development; children count actions and objects that cannot be moved (2000, pg 75). This statement from The Foundation Stage Curriculum is from the green area stepping stone, and it shows me that K is at the correct developmental stage because you can see from my observation in E5 that K was counting the leaf printings on her piece of sugar paper. The Foundation Stage Curriculum also states Mathematical Development; children use size language such as big and little. This statement shows me that R is at the correct developmental stage because he was using size language when he was describing the three leaves. You can see this by viewing my observation in E5.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Preventing Healthcare Associated Infections (HAI) Introduction Clinical governance is important for providing safe care to patients and is essential to continuous improvement in patient safety.(vicgov) One of the key components in relation to this safety and quality issue in health care is preventing and controlling healthcare associated infections(HAI) which plays a significant role in poor outcomes of patients.(sahealth) To prevent transmission of HAI, Hand Hygiene should be done which is one of the most effective ways. Clinical professionals, especially nurses who have high risk of HAI transmission to patients, need to review the effects and great importance of Hand Hygiene to minimize the risk of HAI. Also, study tells that a number of infections can be prevented by adherence to established infection control practices.(sahealth) However, when accessing articles, they need to know the review methods such as a systematic review and randomized control trial, to satisfy evidence based practice with having analysing skills for quality resources. Five articles were reviewed to practice this. Critique Larson et al did research to examine the impact of the new practice Guideline on HAI and this compared the infection rates of pre- and post-Guideline implementation in a sample of US hospitals in different time. The problem is the result can be affected by time. Some components, such as how surveillance is conducted, how infections are defined and other concurrent infection prevention activities over time, might play a significant role in the result. Also, there were no control groups in this research so that the outcome of this research cannot be compared with the control groupÃ¢â¬â¢s infection rates in the same time of post-Guideline implementation. And there was only 2 days observation which is unlikely to be an accurate reflection of practice. Monistrol et al used no control group as well. And Hand Hygiene compliance, the consumption of alcohol-based hand rub (AHR), HAIs and MRSA hospital acquisition incidence were measured. Hand Hygiene compliance was measured by direct observation of health care workers during daily work routine. Observations covered all the 8 hour shifts on weekdays, which is more acceptable than Larson et alÃ¢â¬â¢s only 2 days observation. However, infection control nurses undertook the observers and also part of the educator. This could explain the high Hand Hygiene compliance in all periods due to the presence of observers. Meanwhile, Allegranzi et al assessed the effectiveness of the World Health Organization hand hygiene improvement strategy in a low-income African country, evaluating hand hygiene infrastructure, compliance, healthcare workersÃ¢â¬â¢ knowledge and perceptions, and handrub consumption. The ideal design for these researches would be Randomized Clinical Trial (RCT), because the research outcomes can be compared by control groups for more exact data in a same time. However, those cannot be done properly with RCT and this is the reason why they did not choose RCT for the research strategy. Once the new practice Guideline is published, the control groups will be informed as well. And this might withhold best practices from patients, raising ethical concerns. The most rigorous study among those three articles was Allegranzi et alÃ¢â¬â¢s research. To examine the effectiveness of WHOÃ¢â¬â¢s hand hygiene improvement strategy, they prepared well with training the observers for a long time according to the WHO observation method. And for the baseline evaluation and follow-up evaluation WHO knowledge questionnaire was administered. Also, more scientific and specific categories such as hand hygiene infrastructure and healthcare workersÃ¢â¬â¢ level of knowledge were shown in this research than others. Stout et al and Melissa et al reviewed articles by using a systematic review. In regards to the search strategy, Stout et al searched only PubMed for relevant articles. While Melissa et al searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, HMIC, the Web of Science and the Cochrane Library databases. There is evidence that single electronic database searches lack sensitivity and relevant articles may be missed if only one database is searched(Akobeng 2005). Meanwhile, Stout et al evaluated and reviewed 3,463 articles published between January 1, 2000 and March 31 2013. Forty two articles were selected and grouped into 1 of 4 categories after quality assessment of articles. Also, the earliest year of 2000 was selected because alcohol-based hand rub was not widely in use in prior years. This is a quite scientific strategy. While, there was no specific reason for Melissa et al to pick the articles between May and November 2004, as well as there was no mention about quality assessment of studies. A systematic review was selected for these articles to examine primary studies on focused clinical questions so that specific answers from narrowly defined review questions were given. Findings Conclusion The result of Larson et al indicates that hand hygiene guideline was disseminated and hospitals responded by modifying procedures and policies, compliance with hand hygiene recommendations remained low. Similarly, Monistrol et al suggested that no changes in incidences of HAI were shown after the multimodal campaign. However, Allegranzi et al found that hand hygiene improvement is affordable and effective in a healthcare setting with limited resources. The difference between Summary Number Author/s, year country Aims Sample/setting Design/methods Main Findings Strength/limitations of the study 1 Stout, Ritchie Macpherson 2007 UK To improve compliance with hand hygiene guidelines, resulting in low incidence of HAI. Search strategy with combined terms of Ã¢â¬ËhandwashingÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬Ëalcohol cleanserÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËinfectionÃ¢â¬â¢, or Ã¢â¬ËcomplianceÃ¢â¬â¢ Date or language limitation were applied. A systematic review: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, HMIC, the Web of Science and the Cochrane Library databases between May and November 2004 2 Melissa et al 2014 US To assess the existing evidence surrounding the adoption and accuracy of automated systems or electronically enhanced direct observations and also reviews the effectiveness of such systems in health care settings. 3 Allegranzi et al 2010 US To assess the feasibility and effectiveness of the World Health Organization hand hygiene improvement strategy in a low-income African country. University Hospital, Bamako, Mali Introducing a locally produced, alcohol-based handrub; monitoring hand hygiene compliance; providing performance feedback; educating staff; posting reminders in the workplace; and promoting an institutional safety climate according to the World Health Organization multimodal hand hygiene improvement strategy. Compliance increased from 8.0% at baseline to 21.8% at follow-up 4 Larson, Quiros Lin 2007 US To evaluate implementation and compliance with clinical practices recommended in the new Centers for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC) Hand Hygiene Guideline To compare rates of HAI before and after implementation of the guideline recommendations To examine the patterns and correlates of changes in rates of HAI Survey for 89.8% of 1359 staff members Hospitals that were members of The National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System Quantitative study during 2001 Ã¢â¬â 2004, Hand Hygiene Guideline implementation and compliance measures: the introduction of the guideline within the hospital; the presence of the recommended products on clinical units; institutional policies and procedures regarding hand hygiene, includeing the presence of a formalized plan to monitor compliance. Measure of HAI pre- and post-Guideline: collecting data regarding HAI rates in the ICUs of study hospitals for 12 months before and 12 months following publication of the Hand Hygiene Guideline. Hand hygiene compliance: ranged from 24% to 89% per ICU None of the pre to post-rates of change were associated with hospital characteristics. Assessment of hand hygiene compliance was based on just 2 days of observation 5 Monistrol et al 2011 Spain To evaluate the effectiveness of a multimodal intervention in medical wards in relation to hand hygiene compliance, alcohol-based hand rub consumption and incidence of HAI and MRSA. 825 patients and 868 patients totally in the pre and post period respectively. Conducted at three internal medical wards(113 beds) in Hospital Universitari Mutua Terrassa, Spain Quantitative: Prospective study during 2007 2009. Carried out in four phases: a baseline phase(10 weeks from February 2007), an intervention period(5 months from June 2007), a post intervention(10 weeks from November 2007) and follow-up evaluation(November 2009) Hand hygiene compliance improved from 54.3% in the pre period to 75.8% in the post period. Alcohol-based hand rub consumption increased from 10.5 to 27.2L per 1000 patient-days. The incidence density of HAI ranged from 6.93 to 6.96 per 1000 hospital days and new Healthcare Associated MRSA went down from 0.92 to 0.25 per 1000 hospital-days. Strengths: conducted in general medical wards with the long-term follow-up Limitations: no control group was used; no group session, compliance observation or surveillance of HAIs was carried out outside the studied area Vic gov http://health.vic.gov.au/clinrisk/publications/clinical_gov_policy.htm sahealth http://www.sahealth.sa.gov.au/wps/wcm/connect/public+content/sa+health+internet/clinical+resources/safety+and+quality/preventing+and+controlling+healthcare+associated+infections
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Scientific Knowledge Not Like Other Forms Of Knowledge The argument that science possesses some inherent features not possessed by other disciplines, thus making scientific knowledge distinct from other forms of knowledge has long been debated by philosophers of science. Instinctively, when questioned, the layman may propose that what distinguishes scientific knowledge from other disciplines are the fundamental principles of scientific experimentation, hypothesis testing and theory construction and that the aim of science is ultimately to understand, explain and consequently predict the world in which we inhabit. However, can scientific knowledge really be distinguished from other forms of knowledge on the basis of these features alone? The nature of philosophy of science is to determine what constitutes a science, therefore what common feature all the disciplines purporting to fall under the umbrella of science share that makes them a distinctive form of knowledge. The purpose of this paper is to examine scientific knowledge and compare it with other forms of knowledge in terms of the methodologies they employ, and the rational behind the knowledge. As Okasha (2002) articulated, it is implausible to argue that scientific knowledge is distinct from other forms of knowledge purely on the basis that the aim of science is to comprehend and explain worldly phenomena since this aim is surely shared by all disciplines. Intuitively, one might argue that scientific knowledge can be demarcated from other disciplines by the methodology utilised by scientists to progress scientific explanation, which predominantly resides in the implementation of empirical investigation, theory construction and hypothesis testing. However, as Haack (2003) highlighted, controlled experiments, for example, often thought of as distinctive of the sciences, are not utilised by all scientists, nor are they only utilised by scientists. Whilst astronomers and evolutionary theorists rely on observational methods rather than empirical testing, it is arguable that people such as mechanics and plumbers do utilise methods more akin to the standard scientific means. In f act, as Haack (2003) asserted, what distinguishes science from other disciplines is not that science relies on a distinct methodology, but rather that scientists have merely extended and refined the resources utilised by ordinary people in everyday empirical inquiry, of which we all partake in. In concurrence, Sokal (2008) emphasised that the use of the term science should therefore not be limited to the natural sciences but should include investigations aimed at acquiring accurate knowledge of factual matters relating to any aspect of the world by using rational empirical methods analogous to those routinely employed in the natural sciences. This supports the notion proposed by Huxley that the man of science simply uses with scrupulous exactness the method of which we all habitually and at every minute use carelessly. All empirical inquirers, whether they be molecular biologists, sociologists, historians or detectives, make informed conjectures about the possible explanation of the phenomena that concerns them, examine how well these conjectures stand up to evidence they already have and any further evidence they can obtain and then use their judgement to determine whether to continue to support their original conjecture, modify or reject it. Hence, scientific knowledge cannot be distinguished from other forms of knowledge on the basis of the methodology that it employs since science is not in possession of a special method of inquiry unavailable to historians or detectives or indeed the layman. The methods of certain scientific endeavours may be more refined and exact than for other forms of investigations, however, as Sokal (2008) emphasised, methods of inquiry must be adapted to the subject matter at hand. The underlying principles of scientific inquiry as opposed to other rational inquiry that relies on empirical methods are ultimately the same. What then can distinguish scientific knowledge from alternative types of knowledge? Popper (1972) made a strong case for the notion that whilst some empirical testing conducted in science or indeed in other forms of rational inquiry is genuinely empirical, some disciplines purporting to fall under the umbrella of science rely on methods that are arguably non-empirical or even irrational and pseudo-empirical and that whilst they utilise methods which appeal to observation and experimentation, nevertheless they do not meet the scientific standards. Popper (1972) highlighted cases of supposed pseudo-scientific theories, such as Freuds psychoanalysis theory and Alders individual psychology theory as providing evidence for this stance, arguing that they had more in common with myths than with science whilst seemingly possessing strong explanatory powers. He argued that the fact that any behaviour observed could be explained by these theories, although used to bolster credibility for the t heories, was in fact their biggest weakness since no conceivable behaviour could contradict them and therefore the theories were non-testable and ultimately non-falsifiable. He argued that it is easy to obtain confirmations for any theory if we seek confirmations and that confirming evidence should not count except when it is the result of a genuine test of the theory which means that it can be presented as a serious but unsuccessful attempt to falsify the theory. Popper emphasised that whilst the procedure of making a theory such as Freuds psychoanalysis theory compatible with any possible course of events is always possible, and the theory can be rescued from refutation, the price is that its scientific status is significantly reduced. Significantly, however, Popper was not saying that non-falsifiable theories and therefore knowledge based on non-falsifiable claims do not have significance or their place. Rather, that many of the non-testable theories such as the psychoanalytical or individual psychology approaches to human understanding are analogous with myths, and historically nearly all scientific theories have been borne out of myths therefore a myth may contain important anticipations of science theories. Thus, if a theory is found to be non-scientific or metaphysical as it cannot be falsified it cannot be labelled as insignificant in terms of its value to knowledge but it cannot claim to be supported by empirical evidence in a scientific sense. Therefore, religion, whilst not falsifiable since it is not possible to prove whether God exists, is still a valuable discipline. One caveat to Poppers (1972) criterion of demarcation however, expressed by Okasha (2002) is that whilst Popper criticised, for example, Marxists for explaining away data that appeared to conflict with their theories, rather than accepting that the theories had been refuted, it would seem that this procedure may be routinely used in the field of science. For example, Adams and Leverrier in 1846, determined the existence and location of the planet Neptune by utilising Newtons theory of gravity despite the fact that it had made an incorrect prediction about the orbit of Uranus and had therefore been falsified. Rather than concluding that Newtons theory was completely inaccurate, they continued to advocate the theory and attempted to explain away the conflicting observations regarding Uranus by postulating a new planet, thus demonstrating that even falsified theories can lead to important scientific discoveries. Hence, whilst Poppers argument is initially strong it is somewhat flawed. I t is still essential for scientific knowledge to be based on evidence that has been stringently tested against a clearly defined set of principles, which arguably makes scientific knowledge distinct from other knowledge such as theological knowledge that is not based on such stringent evidence, however scientific knowledge and other forms of knowledge cannot be distinguished purely on the bases of whether the theories they originate from are falsifiable or not since some scientific theories when falsified are still utilised to progress knowledge. Therefore, in terms of science and religion, it is possible to distinguish between the two in terms of the methods of study and how knowledge is acquired, i.e. knowledge derived from empirical testing as opposed to personal beliefs, however it is not possible to distinguish between these two knowledge bases on the fact that scientific knowledge can be falsified whereas religious beliefs cannot since not all scientific knowledge can be. The process of reasoning on which scientific knowledge is based can also be compared with the reasoning behind other forms of knowledge. As Okaska (2002) articulated, scientific knowledge is largely based upon the process of inductive reasoning whereby scientists move from premisses about objects they have examined to conclusions about objects they have not examined. An example of this would be found in the study of Downs Syndrome, in which geneticists have established that sufferers have 47 chromosomes instead of the normal 46. In order to determine this, a large number of sufferers have been examined and in each case the additional chromosome has been found. Therefore, it has been concluded that having this additional chromosome causes Downs Syndrome. However, this is an inductive inference as not all Downs Syndrome sufferers have been tested for the chromosome and therefore the geneticists have moved from the premises about the sufferers they have examined to conclusions about suf ferers they have not examined. It is possible that another explanation could be equally plausible. Scientists heavily rely on inductive reasoning wherever they move from limited data to a more general conclusion. It is arguable that other forms of knowledge as well as scientific forms of knowledge are largely based on inductive reasoning. In fact, we use inductive reasoning in everyday life and our common sense is built on inductive reasoning as highlighted by Haack (2003). However, there are forms of knowledge which do not rely on inductive reasoning, namely religion and theology. According to Haack (2003), unlike religion, science is not primarily a body of belief, but rather a federation of kinds of inquiry. Scientific inquiry relies on experience and reasoning and the sciences have developed many ways to extend the senses and enhance our powers of reasoning but they require no additional kinds of evidential resource beyond these, which are also the resources on which everyday empirical inquiry depends. Religion, on the other hand, is not primarily a kind of inquiry but a body of belief based on personal commitment. Unlike religion, theology is a form of inquiry. Unlike scientific inquiry however theology welcomes and indeed seeks supernatural explanations, explanations in terms of Gods making things so. Furthermore theology usually calls on evidential resources beyond sensory experience and reasoning and most importantly on religious experience and the authority of revealed texts. As Sokal (2008) highlighted, unlike scientific reasoning that is based on facts, theological reasoning stems from the notion that the holy scriptures provide the answers to life and when asked how it can be known that this evidence is accurate, the answer given is because the holy scriptures say it is. Thus theology is subject to circular reasoning and so unlike scientific inquiry; according to Haack (2003) theological inquiry is discontinuous with everyday empirical inquiry both in the kinds of explanations in which is traffics and in the kinds of evidential resource or method on which it calls. However, debate looms large over the nature of inductive reasoning, and whether in fact it is merely a form of circular reasoning itself. Hume (1739) argued that induction cannot be rationally justified at all since it invokes the uniformity of nature which is the assumption that unexamined objects will be similar to examined objects. According to this we cannot assume that past experiences will be a reliable guide to the future and to argue that induction is trustworthy because it has worked up until now is to reason in an inductive manner. The uniformity of nature cannot be tested empirically either since this would require inductive reasoning. Hume emphasised that our inductive inferences rest on an assumption about the world for which we have no good grounds and therefore postulated that our confidence in induction is just blind faith. Therefore, arguably if this were the case then science is like religion and theology after all in that it is based on reasoning that can never be proved. However, there are many caveats to Humes theory. As Strawson emphasised, induction is so fundamental to how we think and reason that it is no the sort of thing that should and could be justified as induction is one of the standards we use to decide whether claims about the world are justified. Furthermore, the notion of probability would suggest that there is weight in our inductive reasoning, and therefore since scientific knowledge is founded on objective empirical evidence, it is arguable that the reasoning behind science is more trustworthy that that of religion which is subjective in nature. In conclusion, intuitively scientific knowledge is a distinctive form of knowledge; however, under closer examination it is evident that similarities do exist. The reasoning behind predominantly all scientific knowledge, like the majority of other disciplines and our everyday inquiry, is inductive in nature, which raises the question as to whether any scientific knowledge can ever be proven. Furthermore, whilst science depends on the scientific method of experimentation, theory construction and hypothesis testing, as Haack (2003) emphasised, these methods are by no means exclusive to science. Rather, scientific inquiry should be seen as continuous with everyday inquiry, although somewhat more refined and other disciplines should be equally able to utilise the scientific method. Whilst methodology may differ between disciplines, the underlying concept that the inquiry must be rational for the knowledge obtained to be credible is inherent in most disciplines akin with science. As Chalm ers (1999) argued, there is a false assumption that there is a universal scientific method to which all forms of knowledge should conform however as Feyerabend (1975) argued, defenders of science typically judge it to be superior to other forms of knowledge without adequately investigating these other forms. He postulated that there can never be a decisive argument in favour or science over other forms of knowledge that are incommensurable with it and that if scientific knowledge is to be compared with other forms of knowledge then it will be necessary to investigate the nature, aims and methods of science and those other forms of knowledge by utilising methods such as by studying historical texts, records, original papers, letters, private conversations and so on, rather than simply by utilising scientific methods. In concurrence with Haack (2003) and Sokal (2008), Chalmers (1999) also emphasised that other forms of knowledge should not conform to the rules of logic stipulated by s cience and therefore pseudo-science and disciplines such as Marxism should not be rejected as implausible on the grounds that they do not conform to the preconceived notion of the scientific method. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, intuitively scientific knowledge is a distinctive form of knowledge; however, under closer examination similarities exist. The reasoning behind predominantly all scientific knowledge, like the majority of other disciplines and our everyday inquiry, is inductive in nature. Furthermore, whilst science depends on experimentation, theory construction and hypothesis testing, as Haack (2003) emphasised, these methods are by no means exclusive to science. Scientific inquiry is seemingly continuous with everyday inquiry, although somewhat more refined. Whilst methodology may differ between disciplines and some theories may be more testable than others, the underlying concept that the inquiry must be rational for the knowledge obtained to be credible is inherent in most disciplines akin with science.
Monday, August 19, 2019
Literature: Tool For The Masses to Grasp and Form Opinions on A Subject Over the centuries, one of the most important tools available to protesting groups was literature. Some of the most famous protest literature in the world has its roots in American history. For example, some great American authors of protest literature include Thomas Paine, Thomas Nast, John C. Calhoun, and Martin Luther King. Through eloquent, sometimes subtle means, these authors became the spokesmen for their particular protest movements. Thomas Paine was an English-born man who seemed to stir controversy wherever he traveled. Paine's forceful yet eloquent prose made him a hero for the three great causes to which he devoted his life; the American Revolution, religious reform, and the natural rights of man. At the age of 37, Paine strove for the fabled shores of America, determined to forget his past. He made the acquaintance of Benjamin Franklin, and settled in Philadelphia. There, Paine was eventually hired into the profession of editor for the Pennsylvania Magazine. He published a series of minor essays, but his first important work was an essay written for the Pennsylvania Journal in which Paine openly denounced slavery. This was Paine's first foray into the world of protest literature, and it clearly whet his appetite. Paine soon became fascinated with the ongoing hostility in Anglo-American relations, and, much to the dismay of his publisher, could not seem to think of anything but. Therefore, in late 1775, Paine had begun what was to become a 50-page Pamphlet known as Common Sense. In this work, Paine stated that: Society in every state is a blessing, but Government, even in its best state, is but a necessary evil; in its worst state an intolerable one: for when we suffer, or are exposed to the same miseries by a Government, which we might expect in a country without Government, our calamity is heightened by reflecting that we furnish the means by which we suffer. Government, like dress, is the badge of lost innocence; the palaces of kings are built upon the ruins of the bowers of paradise (Fast 6). This very biting and controversial stance is what characterized Paine's writing. He went on to dismiss the King as a fool, and stated that natural ability is not necessarily related to heredity. Paine argued that the colonies existed only for British profit, and that the colonies must unite quickly if they were ever to form a single nation. This latter argument was more than likely influenced by Franklin's famous "Join or Die" cartoon. Finally, Paine argued that the only way to gain the rights desired by the colonists and help from outside powers was
Sunday, August 18, 2019
King Lear was one of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s lifetime popular work, and one of his most powerful works. Many people believe it was ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s best tragedies ever committed. In this paper I will be giving a brief summary of the story as it unfolds; and a character analysis from the main characters are going to be presented as well. King Lear of Britain decided to step down from his throne, leaving his kingdom to his three daughters. Before the king divides his kingdom the king tests. The three daughters had to express their love for the king; his two oldest daughters Goneril and Regan sweet talk the king for a part of the kingdom. Cordelia the youngest and LearÃ¢â¬â¢s favorite remained silent and told the king that no word can express her love for the king. King Lear became furious for not hearing the sweet words he was expecting and disowns Cordelia. She then leaves the country to marry the king of France. (Mabillard) LearÃ¢â¬â¢s most trusted counselor Earl of Kent is also banished for defending Cordelia. Kent seeing danger in the Kings oldest daughters leads him to put himself in disguise as a servant. He remains close to King Lear to protect him from Goneril and Regan who decides to usurp their fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s kingdom. Meanwhile the Earl of Gloucester is also dismayed by the events happening in his household. Edmund his illegitimate son told Gloucester that Edgar his legitimate son is trying to kill him. This being a lie by Edmund to obtain his brothers birthright. (Mabillard) When Gloucester realizes that LearÃ¢â¬â¢s daughter have turned against him he decides to help him. Regan and her husband Cornwall discover Gloucester helping Lear and accuse him of treason, bling him and turns him to wonder the countryside. He later is found by his disguised son ... ...r father and turned against him. They plotted their fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s death with Edmund. He was the son of Gloucester; he was evil and wicked. Not only does he plot the kingÃ¢â¬â¢s death but his own fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s death too blaming it on his brother. Edgar was the opposite of his brother Edmund. He is similar to Cordelia; both suffer very much thought out the story. Unlike Cordelia, Edgar does remain alive at the end, and ends up being the King of Britain with Kent and Albany. Kent was King LearÃ¢â¬â¢s loyal companion and counselor. He remains incognito to stay with the king. Kent remained loyal to his king after he realized the kingÃ¢â¬â¢s daughterÃ¢â¬â¢s heartless actions. These were the conflicts King Lear faced throughout the story. Many of the conflicts being from love, power, loyalty, and family. At the end of it all the king died of grief that he could have prevented from the beginning.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Pre-transfusion Blood Tests: Title: To perform the following tests: ABO and RH grouping using the Diamed Gel Card system. Rh and Kell phenotyping (antigen typing) using the Diamed Gel Card system. Direct Coombs Test (DCT) using the conventional tube system. Direct Coombs Test (DCT) using the Diamed Gel Card system. Antibody Identifications (IAT) technique using the conventional tube system. Antibody Identifications (ETC) technique using the Diamed Gel Card system. Name: S. Ward Date: 8/11/2012 Introduction: The objective of this practical is to perform some pretransfusion tests, using various methods.Pretransfusion testing is carried out in all hospital blood bank laboratories and is used to minimise the risk of encurring a haemolytic transfusion reaction. Haemolytic transfusion reactions occur when a patient is transfused with red cells which have a foriegn antigen on the cell surface that the patient has an antibody to. While the ABO and Rh blood group systems are the most antigeni c and thus can cause severe haemolytic transfusion reactions. The other blood group systems can also cause a (less severe) haemolytic reaction, these reactions can be fatal and so the procedures to avoid them are of great importance.Materials & Method: Not all tests were performed by all members of the class. ABO and Rh blood grouping using the Diamed Gel Card system; performed. Rh and Kell trying using the Diamed Gel Card system; not performed. Direct Coombs Test (DCT) using the Diamed Gel Card system;not performed. Antibody Identification (ETC) technique using the Diamed Gel Card system; performed but not centrifuged so no results were obtained. Antibody Identifications (IAT) technique using the conventional tube system; performed Direct Coombs Test (DCT) using the conventional tube system; erformed. Cell 1% suspensions were prepared for the bench from a 3% cell suspension provided. Results: As well as some tests not being completed by everyone, some results were not obtained as t here was a queue for the ID centrifuge. Results below are ones obtained by myself; ABO & Rh grouping; Known O+ cells were tested. Expected results would be; However, the gel matrix had dried out so no results were obtained. Antibody Identifications (IAT) technique using the conventional tube system; + + + Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â + Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â + +When these results are compared with the ID panned profile, its is seen that there is no antigen which matches the antibody in the patient's plasma. Traditional Direct Coombs test results was positive. Discussion: The results from this practical were not as expected. With regard to the ABO Rh typing, the expected result for the O+ blood tested is as shown above. The reason why the results obtained were incorrect were because the gel had dried out. This shows that it is very important to ensure that the reagents used in the transfusion laboratory are of a really high quality to ensure that all results obtained are reliable.With regard to the traditional antibody profile, it is seen that there is no antigen which matches the antibody in the patient's plasma according to the ID panel. It is possible that the patient has an uncommon antigen which isn't on the ID panel. However, it's more likely that there was human error in labelling the reaction tubes 1-10. The direct coombs test checks to see in vivo sensitisation to IgG antibodies. The traditional coombs test results for this practical showed aggultenation when treated with antihuman globulin, which is a positive result.Results for the other laboratory tests using Diamed Gel Card system were unobtained due to there being a queue for the centrifuge. A brief explanation of all these tests is explained below; ABO & Rh D grouping; this can be done by conventional tube technique, as performed previously, or can be done using the Diamed Gel Card system. These gel cards contain known antobodies on a gel matrix. A positive result shows the red cells kept at the top of the gel m atrix, a negative result sees the red cells going down through the matrix to the bottom of the card.This has replaced the traditional method as it allows for automation. Rh & Kell phenotyping; this is done using the Diamed Gel Card sytem and is similiar to the ABO and Rh typing method. This shows which, if any of the main Rh or Kell antigens are on the patients red cells. The results are read in the same manner as the ABO and Rh D as described above. Direct Coombs Test using the conventional tube system; The direct antiglobulin test is used to detect in-vivo sensitisation and detects small IgG antibodies on a patient's red cells.The conventional tube method involves washing the cells three times for one minute, resuspending each time, then finally adding two drops of antihuman globulin and centrifuge once more for 20 seconds and results were recorded. This process is laborious and so can be replaced with the next method. Direct Coombs Test using the Diamed Gel Card system; The gel c ard system involves the addition of 1% cell suspension of test cells to the Anti IgG card, this is centrifuged for 10 minutes and results are recorded. This method also shows in-vivo sensitisation and detects small IgG antibodies on the patient's red cells.Antibody Identifications (IAT) technique using the conventional tube system; Antibody identification is used as a follow-up test to a positive indirect antiglobulin test. The antibody identifcation test is used to determine the red cell antibodies in the patient's plasma. If one or more clinically significant red cell antibodies are identified, then donor blood that lacks the corresponding red cell antigens must be used for tranfusion, this is reffered to as antigen negative blood. The conventional tube system involves reacting the patients plasma with the 10 commercial identification cells.This is incubated for 30 minutes at 37Ã °c, each of the reaction tubes are washed 3 times for one minute, resuspended after each time and the n two drops of antihuman globulin are added and the tubes are centrifuged for an additional 20 seconds and results are recorded. This process is laborious, and so can be replaced by the gel card system which can be automated. Antibody Identifications technique using the Diamed Gel Card system; The method is the similiar to the other gel card systems and the principle it the same as the other antibody identification.As mentioned bofore, this process allows for automation and so is favoured in large labs. Questions: Principle of the Direct and Indirect Coombs test: The principle of the Coombs' test is that addition of rabbit anti-human IgG to the patient's blood will result in aggregation of the patient's red cells if the red cells are coated in small IgG antibodies that will not agglutenate normally at room temperature. So, the direct antiglobulin test is used to detect in-vivo sensitisation to IgG antibodies. Applications:The direct coombs test is udes to test for autoimmune haemoly tic anaemia. The indirect coombs test can be used to detect very small amounts of antibodies present in a patients plasma and if used in antenatal care to screen pregnant women for antibodies that may cause haemolytic disease of the newborn. It can also be used for compatability testing, antibody identification, RBC phenotyping and titration studies. Controls: The positive control is sensitised O+ cells and the negative control is O- cells.
Friday, August 16, 2019
Romeo and Juliet is one of William ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s most well known plays and loved by many. It is a tragedy, where two feuding familyÃ¢â¬â¢s conflict is reconciled with the loss of their children, Romeo Montague and Juliet Capulet, the Ã¢â¬Å"two star crossed loversÃ¢â¬ that take their lives. In this essay I will analyze the given passage in Act 5 Scene 3 (143) relating my discussion to the play as a whole. In the given passage, Juliet awakens from her drug induced Ã¢â¬ËdeathÃ¢â¬ and finds Romeo dead along with Paris.Juliet cannot leave the tomb or even live without Romeo and decides to take her own life with his dagger. This does not come as a surprise to the viewer as they were told at the beginning of the play that Ã¢â¬Å"A pair of star-crossed lovers take their life; Whose misadventured piteous overthrows Doth with their death bury their parents' strife. Ã¢â¬ (1:1 3) Shakespeare not only tells the viewer right from the beginning that the lovers will die but he a lso demonstrates that fate is against them. In Act 5 Scene 5 Juliet foresees RomeoÃ¢â¬â¢s death in a vision, adding to the drama.She says Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦Methinks I see thee, now thou art below, As one dead in the bottom of a tomb: Either my eyesight fails, or thou looe'st pale. Ã¢â¬ (3:5 109) Romeo replies that she too looks pale; furthermore saying that Ã¢â¬Å"Dry sorrow drinks [their] bloodÃ¢â¬ (3:5 109). He even dreams of his own fate, Ã¢â¬Å"I dreamt my lady came and found me deadÃ¢â¬ (5:1 132. ) This dream of RomeoÃ¢â¬â¢s seals his fate and forewarns him of his death which is depicted in the given passage Act 5 Scene 3 (143). Lady Capulet also unknowingly condemns Juliet to her death.When Juliet refuses to marry Paris, Lady Capulet says Ã¢â¬Å"I wish the fool were married to her graveÃ¢â¬ (3:5 112). She even ironically foretells how Romeo will die when she tells Juliet that she will find someone to Ã¢â¬Å"give him such an unaccustomed dram That he shall soon keep Tybalt companyÃ¢â¬ (3:5 110) seeking revenge for TybaltÃ¢â¬â¢s death. Even Juliet brings upon the image of her own death and of Romeos on separate occasions. When she finds out she has to marry Paris she asks her mother to Ã¢â¬Å"Delay this marriage for a month, a week; or, if you do not, make the bridal bed In that dim monument where Tybalt iesÃ¢â¬ (3:5 114). Upon finding out about her arranged marriage to Paris, and knowing that she is already married to Romeo, she says to the nurse Ã¢â¬Å"My husband is on earth, my faith in heaven. How shall that faith return again to earth, Unless that husband send it to me from heaven B +y leaving earth? Ã¢â¬ (3:5 114) As seen in the examples above, the images of death and marriage often intertwine emphasizing Romeo and JulietÃ¢â¬â¢s fate which was foretold and wished upon. There was one person, however, who tried to alter it- Friar Laurence.He marries Romeo and Juliet hoping that their marriage would end the feud between the fami lies. He says, Ã¢â¬Å"In one respect I'll thy assistant be-; For this alliance may so happy prove To turn your household's rancour to pure love. Ã¢â¬ (2:4 63) This shows the viewer that he is good intentioned yet naive and can not foresee the consequences of this clandestine marriage. In the given extract the Friar only recognizes the consequences of his plans and unexpected outcome when he finds Romeo and Paris dead.When Juliet awakens he offers to take her to the nunnery and then flees as he hears noises abandoning Juliet as he does not want to be associated with their death. Many Christians believe that the Friar tries to play God and even believe that JulietÃ¢â¬â¢s death is made to resemble JesusÃ¢â¬â¢ death and resurrection. Jesus died for the sins of humankind and Juliet dies for the sins of the two feuding families. Furthermore, gradesaver. com mentions another biblical reference, when Benvolio attempts to halt the fight in the first scene, he remarks, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦pu t up your swords; you know not what you doÃ¢â¬ (1. . 8). This same phrase is used by Jesus when he stops his apostles from fighting the Roman guards during his arrest. Shakespeare also contradicts these religious elements with erotic elements. To commit suicide, Romeo drinks the poison from a chalice which by its rounded shape symbolizes a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s torso. In turn Juliet kills herself with RomeoÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"happy daggerÃ¢â¬ , a phallic symbol. In conclusion, Romeo and Juliet die as a result of the poisonous feud between their families. With their death Shakespeare resolves the major conflict of the play as the families choose to reconcile.Fate and time is against the lovers. Romeo never receives the letter sent to him by Friar Lawrence informing him of the plans, Juliet awakes just after Romeo commits suicide and the families reconcile only after their death. Even though the audience knows right from the beginning that the lovers will die and are constantly reminded th roughout the play, they canÃ¢â¬â¢t help but feel heartbroken. There is however a glimmer of hope, as the night has always brought Romeo and Juliet together and on this tragic night the lovers will reunite in death, defying the stars.
The poem leaves us either reassured that in the midst of all evil there can be some good or depressed and in despair because in the family life of the Belson commandant lurks an evil which could ruin their lives any time. Night of the Scorpion The title denotes power and control from the scorpion as one night the scorpion ruled and controlled everything that happened. The title uses Night to give a sense of dark times and that something fatal may occur. The poem is very other. It has an Indian location which is where scorpions can be found as it is one of the warmer regions of the world. The poem is in free verse with the last three lines sectioned off. It is of narrative style and contains a very memorable heart. The weather was desperate and it was lashing with rain. In fact the monsoon conditions had affected the scorpion and all that it wanted to do was to shelter from the torrent. However it was disturbed by the poetÃ¢â¬â¢s mother who was probably searching for rice to feed her family. She was stung and the poison from the tail entered her bloodstream like a foreign invader defiling the enemy territory. Many neighbours arrived and the author compares this to a Ã¢â¬Å"swarm of fliesÃ¢â¬ . I would compare it to students who clamour around desperate fro entertainment around a schoolyard fight or would be helpers around an accident victim. The neighbours like the helpers all had their suggestions many of their ideas involving the power, rituals and beliefs of religion. The scorpion is thought to be evil when in reality it is only trying to protect itself. The people believed that the victim and the scorpion were still linked. This bond meant that when the scorpion moved the poison inside the mother moved around her blood invading and conquering. Many prayers were said for the victim. The neighbours also felt that out of this tragic accident some good would emerge. The poison would Ã¢â¬Å"burn awayÃ¢â¬ her sins and cleanse and purify her body of excessive ambition and lustful or adulterous thoughts or acts. Neighbours believed that her suffering was paying the price of evil to God and reducing the amount of evil in the world. The victimÃ¢â¬â¢s husband was willing to try any one idea or a combination and mixture of the suggestions. He was usually not one to believe in religion but usually based his opinions on logic and facts. Yet even he set fire to the affected site and watched the Ã¢â¬Å"flame feedingÃ¢â¬ on her toe. A holy man was allowed to perform sacred rites and after twenty hours the victim recovers only to rejoice in the fact that it was her and not her children. The motherÃ¢â¬â¢s wishes were a superb example of the unconditional love most mothers feel for their children. Comparisons and Differences. Both poems are about creatures who are simply concerned with their own survival. With the vultures it is the need for food that causes them to be scavenges and with the scorpion its wish not to be squashed causes it to Ã¢â¬Å"flash its diabolic tailÃ¢â¬ . Both poems give information on cultures that are not familiar to us. The main difference is the message given by the poets In vultures the readers can chose there own position with regards to good and evil whereas the second message denotes the helplessness that sometimes death will occur and at other times the victim will survive. In the scorpion it is possible for both the victim and the scorpion to survive whereas the vultures will die if they donÃ¢â¬â¢t eat prey and the prey is already dead. Death is a necessary evil for the vultures. Cultural Background I think that Ã¢â¬ËNight of the ScorpionÃ¢â¬â¢ best captures cultural background because it mentions religion and family life from another culture. For example Ã¢â¬Å"mud baked wallsÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"candles and lanternsÃ¢â¬ and the Ã¢â¬Å"Holy man performing his rights to tame the poison with an incantationÃ¢â¬ . Whereas Ã¢â¬ËvulturesÃ¢â¬â¢ is set in the middle of nowhere, somewhere like the deserted plains of Africa. It isnÃ¢â¬â¢t something that would be found happening in a village. Ã¢â¬ËScorpionÃ¢â¬â¢ is a true story of the poetsÃ¢â¬â¢ family and it comes across through the detail and building of atmosphere the poem contains brought about by the phrase Ã¢â¬Å"ten hours of steady rain had driven him to crawl beneath a sack of riceÃ¢â¬ . As he was there at the time his thoughts and feelings are brought across very well in his writing. The poem shows compassion when the Ã¢â¬Å"mother only said Thank God the scorpion picked on me and spared my children. Ã¢â¬ Conclusion I prefer Ã¢â¬ËvulturesÃ¢â¬â¢ as I like the way in which evil is contained in good. This is shown in the phrase Ã¢â¬Å"in the very germ of that kindred love is lodged the perpetuity of evilÃ¢â¬ . The evil is described in phrases such as Ã¢â¬Å"picked the eyes of a swollen corpseÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"ate the things in its bowelÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"fumes of human roastÃ¢â¬ . The good however is conjured up by Ã¢â¬Å"inclined affectionatelyÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"tender offspring. I feel it is more of a poem compared to Night of the Scorpion because Scorpion is a very much narrative style of writing. It is too narrative for my liking.
Thursday, August 15, 2019
Mixed Racial and Cultural Groups is increased by a marginal number in the United States. The growth of these multiracial groups started to surface through migration of different ethnics and raised most of their families in the United States even through marriage. These are some of the issues that have been raised by individual people of having an entity separation of mixed race and cultural or to considered them as Americans without a hyphen. Thinking about this issue myself, and thinking of my two children who married to a different ethnic rather than Samoans. These questions come to mind about this issue: How, Why, and what the three words that needs a big explanation about this matter. According to multiracial Americans, Americans whose identity as two or more races identifies with just one group culturally and socially. From statistics that I got from online, stated that about 2. 9% of the population in the year 2010 are self-identified as multiracial. The identity or the classification of the peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s identification is generally according to the culture they were raised in. Social segregation in many areas of the country is forming interracial unions or cultural group. The diversity of social conditions through migrations brought new groups of people to the United States. Through these migrations, mixed races started to rise when interracial marriage were born and started to increase in the United States. The movement of multiracial identity by more than one ethnicity has taken place and strong. Statistics from the year 2010 census in the United States shows that the largest multiracial groups were white and black which is 1. 8 million. The other 1. 7 millions are white and some other race, white and Asian is 1. 6, white and American Indian and Alaskan Native is 1. 4 million. I have learned that the largest growing group in multiracial is white and black which is about 134%. That is more than 1 million people. MIX RACIAL AND CULTURAL GROUP According to Susan Saulny of the New York Times, title Race Remixed, said that Ã¢â¬Å"sea of change is how we think about race, ethnicity and its place in societyÃ¢â¬ . I believe that a challenge to trend towards multiracial from a sociological perspective is a leap that we should take. The understanding of racial and ethnic categories of their boundaries can be a problem to other multiracial groups. I think that ancestry is the biggest influence in identities through a number of generations through migrations. I also believe that each multi mix or racial group should be treated the same regardless of their identity. If they are legally citizens of the United States, they have the right to be treated equally. I believe that they have contributed to the wellbeing and welfare of the United States through their services in employment within the government, military or private companies. Regardless of the race and ethnicity, they should be treated and considered Americans. President Obama is good example of what I mean about treating them the same no matter what color of their skin or where they are from. I know that some of these mix race entities are trying to separate themselves with-in the United States but when they travel to other countries of the world, they considered be call Americans. As a citizen of New Zealand, I am proud to call myself to be an American and I respect the land that my children were born. What can the United States or these multiracial groups gain from wanting to be separated from their identity. Through my search online, I came across Mrs. Karissa SullivaÃ¢â¬â¢s draft and she said that ancestry influences identities. She said that socialization is the crucible of racial and ethnic identity formation. Farley in 2002, construct racial and ethnic classifications which was adopted by the government for each race or reconsidered themselves to either refuse to identify their own race and ethnic category. MIX RACIAL AND CULTURAL GROUP. I believe that mix racial and cultural groups are increasing daily by the number throughout the United States. However, research shows that children with an original multiracial identity grow up to be happier than those of single-race identity. Some of the statistics shows that another addition to the growth of mix race is through adoption of children from countries outside of the United States. According to FactÃ¢â¬â¢s for Families 2010, parents are coping with these pressures in having open communications with the families about their culture and race. Encouragement and support in every multicultural group for families to be familiar with their language, traditions and customs within their families. They have to support and try to establish a good relationship by creating a network for their children, parents, family member, relatives and the community. In conclusion, the separation and classifications between mix racial and multicultural groups is not an easy task or thing to do. Two of my children are married to different ethnic. My oldest daughter is married to an African American and my son is married to a girl who is beautiful and white but has about four or five mix blood in her. I believe in democracy and the United States is nowhere in having a separation of any mix race and cultural group who are living in the United States. God Bless America, God bless the people of the United States. References: Perez, Anthony Daniel, Hirschman, Charles. The Changing Racial and Ethnic. http://www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/pmc/articles/PMC2882688/ The American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (March-2011). Facts for Families, no. 71 Multiracial Children. http://www. aacap. org/galleries/FactsForFamilies/71_multiracial_children. pdf Dr. Nicole Martinez and Mrs. Karissa Sullivan. May 6, 2013 .docx.
Wednesday, August 14, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"Socrates, good day!Ã¢â¬ exclaimed Person. Socrates is still mesmerized in this realm unbeknownst to him. Dazed and confused, he sees a figure, a person looking right at him. He replied, Ã¢â¬Å"Good day to you to. May I ask you questions about this world? I suppose you are a citizen of this state.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I would gladly entertain your queries, but I have questions too, questions that only you can answer,Ã¢â¬ retorted Person. Ã¢â¬Å"I will bring the truth upon your inquiries, if you allow me the pleasure of asking you one question. I need help in bringing out the truth so that the decision I make would be based on reason.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"The pleasure is mine,Ã¢â¬ said Socrates, Ã¢â¬Å"I will help you bring the light of truth into your question, what is it that you ask?Ã¢â¬ Person then hesitated, but replied eventually, Ã¢â¬Å"Should I submit my school requirement? The teacher asked to write something philosophical, something uhmÃ¢â¬ ¦ something about a dialogue.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Then it is an obligation, I suppose, and every obligation must be fulfilled. This is a moral act, pious according to the laws of my state, Athens. One must never disrespect the state, it is immoral.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I do not want to submit my paper, it gets in the way of my hobbies and friends, yet at the same time, I do not want to fail my obligations to my school, Ã¢â¬Å" Person said. Ã¢â¬Å"This obligation, to whom is it addressed,Ã¢â¬ Socrates asked. Ã¢â¬Å"The obligation is for my teacher,Ã¢â¬ replied Person. Ã¢â¬Å"Why would you not obey your obligation? Did you enter this obligation as an agreement,Ã¢â¬ inquired Socrates. Ã¢â¬Å"Why, I, ah I entered the obligation as an agreement when I enrolled. I entered it willingly but the teacher gets in the way of my hobbies and friends,Ã¢â¬ said Person. Socrates asked: Ã¢â¬Å"If the teacher is a hurdle to you, would you then disregard this authority? What is the basis of your rebellion against authority?Ã¢â¬ And Person replied: Ã¢â¬Å"I would disregard the authorities, but there are consequences, like a failing grade. If I fail, I would either repeat this course, or I would have a hard time applying for a job after I graduate if most of my grades show my disregard for requirements and obligations.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Then, following this authority is a virtue?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yes!Ã¢â¬ exclaimed Person. Ã¢â¬Å"And entering an agreement or obligation willingly is acceptable?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yes,Ã¢â¬ said Person proudly. Ã¢â¬Å"If the authority gets in the way of your time with friends, does this mean that the authority is immoral?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"No.Ã¢â¬ whispered Person. At this point, Socrates is fuming mad. I know that he is a just man. Plato said so, when I conversed with him moments ago. And now I know that Socrates is not only just but also virtuous. He is attached to truth itself. Furiously, he said: Ã¢â¬Å"Then, I would say that you are not virtuous because you dare defy authority that is virtuous! You are also immoral, for defying your obligations that you entered willingly! Why then did you enter this agreement if you are not agreeing with it?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Because studying is required to be smart and successful, I want to be successfulÃ¢â¬ ¦ and being smart means that you gain wisdom,Ã¢â¬ Person shyly said. The face of Socrates brightened a bit: Ã¢â¬Å"You are wise in saying that Person,Ã¢â¬ exclaimed Socrates, Ã¢â¬Å"because the beginning of wisdom is the recognition of your ignorance. However, knowing that you are ignorant but not following the virtuous path towards truth and wisdom only means that you are foolish. Do as you please, do not fulfill the obligations of your agreement, and you will lose your identity as a Person. What difference do you have then from beasts?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I am not a beast. And I am not foolish. I will then, submit to my obligations, I will write my paper. So, Socrates, let us move on, what are your questions about this realm?Ã¢â¬ Person said eventually.