Thursday, February 28, 2019
Factors responsible for the miscellany in coca cola confederacy mixed bag Management in Coca-Cola Corporation Change is significant, prolonged and disruptive In this attri scarcelye, change in an organization includes venturing into reinvigorated areas of business, much(prenominal) as launching unseasoned products in the in the buff market, facing an unexpected event such as economic crisis and redirection of the company. Change is a regular process of conjugation check to (), an aligned face must discombobulate a continuous synchronization of the important management levers such as strategy, operation, culture and reward.Moreover, discussed that in these management levers, the managers, chief executive officers and supervisors are responsible for manipulating and rearranging both the compassionate and non-human elements. In addition, discussed that change is an important aspect in the business mankind especially in engineering and innovation, from simple technologies and procedures up to more obscure operating environments, nowadays technologies and products are coming together to achieve a common conclusion or objective. Organisations that resist changes will inevitably face wider exposure to risks and losses.There are a identification number of situations in which change is undeniable within the organisation such as technological advancement that is cosmos utilised by different companies in order to cope up with the competition. excursion from what was mentivirtuosod earlier, there are still many issues and concerns that are needed for change in the organisation, however the most substantial thing is that organisations cognise that changes happen constantly for different reasons and the management must citation these changes as soon as possible to prevent great losses.Why an organisation does bear changes? What are the factors and reasons for undertaking it? According to MacCalman and Parton the most influential factor in changes in organisations is the external environment which instigates reaction. Some of the warnings given by MacCalman and Parton in the external environment that triggers changes in the organisation are Changes in technology being utilised Changes in the drutherss and expectations of the consumers Changes due to competition Changes because of legislation by the government Changes due to modifications in the economy whether locally or internationally Changes in the communications media Changes in the value systems of the society Changes in the add up chain Changes in the distribution chain The second factor that initiates change in the organisation is the internal changes which are the reactions of the organisation to the external changes. Aside from the responses there are also some factors that contribute to the internal changes, an example of this is a new marketing strategy for existing and new products.And finally, changes in organisation happen if they try to act in advance in order to deal with the expected risks and difficulty. An example is when an organisation anticipates the problems that may derive and creates and devises plans to combat and negate the impact of those problems. Change Management Nickols (2006) has four canonical commentarys of change management, agree to him it is a task of managing changes, a field of victor practise, a torso of intimacy and information and a command mechanism.Task of Managing Change- Nickols defined managing changes as the devising of transformation in a planned and opinionated fashion. He stated that the main objective of managing change is to efficiently utensil new techniques and methods within the organisation, moreover the changes to be handled depends upon the control of the organisation. Aside from the definition mentioned earlier, Nickols also has a second definition on managing changes and it is the reactions to changes in which the organisation has no control. Area of Professional Practice- in wh at way professional practice came into managing changes?Are there any relations between the two? days ago, managing changes in a corporation is done by the management, supervisors, and CEO of the company, but nowadays with the constant change in the concepts of business and evolution of new theories a number of people have developed firms that particularly addresses the issues regarding managing changes. According to Nickols there are a number of individuals and consulting firms that declare they engaged in activities that involves planned change and that the firm exercises change management practices.A Body of Knowledge- The body of knowledge in change management according to Nickols includes the following, models, methods and techniques, tools and various forms of knowledge that constructs the change management practice. Moreover, Nickols discussed that the content of change management is influence by sociology, psychology, business administration, industrial engineering, economi cs, systems engineering and human and organisational behaviour. Control Mechanism- over the ancient years groups and individuals handling the information systems of organisation have tried to control and direct changes to the applications and systems of the company.External Environment- over the past decades, the Coca-Cola Company has faced a number of changes in the external environment that have transformed the management of the company. unmatchable of the best examples is during the World state of war II. The company was able to maintain the experimental condition of the company, at the same time, was able to enter new markets despite the environment. preferably of lying-low because of the war, the company became more aggressive through providing free drinks for the GIs during the World War II. Through this the corporation was able to hit two birds at one stone.First, because the carbonated drinks sent by the company, it became a patriotic symbol by the United States s antiq uatediers in which led to consumer loyalty. Second, the company was able to take value of the situation and established the product in newly-occupied countries by the Ally forces and because of that the company established plants in various locations worldwide paving the way for its post-war expansion. another(prenominal) aspect in the external environment is the change of taste and expectations of the consumers.During the mid-1980s wherein the Americans favoured the benignant taste of the rival product, the company created its counterpart but became a mercantile failure however instead of backing down, Coca-Cola changed its management strategy and returned the old formula, and just renamed it as Coca-Cola Classic. And with the rise of obesity in the United States and consumers became health conscious the company released new versions of Coke in order to address the needs of these type of consumers, such products include Diet Coke and Coca-Cola Zero.In addition, according to Boo l (2007) companies such as Coca-Cola are compulsory to transform due to course of instructions that have a huge impact on their business, and one of these trends is the health and fitness. A number of people are noe investing more in their health, and in order to keep up with the trend, Coca-Cola introduced their new product which is a large calorie burning soft drink, the Enviga. Moreover, Coca-Cola is collaborating with the Swiss company Nestle. Coca-Cola is dealing with innovation and change. During the Asian Financial Crisis, Coca- Cola was also triggered to change its course of management in that particular region.The responses and reactions of Coca-Cola with the external environment are its internal changes. Internal Changes- as mentioned earlier, Asia experienced its financial crisis in 1997. According to (2002) as the financial crisis sweep the Asian region, the chief executive officer, responded to this by mobilising his executives to workshops about how Coca-Cola would seize new growth opportunities. stated that Coca-Cola gave emphasis on acquisition opportunities, Coca-Cola bought acquired bottling business in southmost Korea which gave more access in retail stores in South Korea, as well as, better entry in China, Japan and Malaysia.Coca-Cola cut its country-defined market perspective and focused on regional strategic date and acquired local brands of tea and coffee. In the case of health trends and changing taste of the consumers, Coca-Cola responded to this through innovation and change. Innovation is accomplished through development of new products such as the Enviga, Diet Coke, Coca-Cola Zero, and other variants of Coke. The change is incited by the trend in health and fitness and consumer tastes which had an impact on the business of Coca-Cola.
Human Resource Management is one of the almost important parts of an organization. This is due to the occurrence that it gives due attention to an internal asset in an organization, which is its employees. Due to this, the human resource management has the right of hiring, organizing, motivating, and dealing with other employee-management mention. In relation to these, the concept of affirmative natural action is also one of the let gos that the human resource management has to deal with. It is deep down their prerogative and authority to implement the policy of affirmative action in the operations of their organization.This could be exemplified through this recent article that discuses the musical theme of affirmative action in the workplace. This article explains the decision of the Supreme Court with regards to the model of Ricci, et al v. DeStefano that is related with the implementation of affirmative action. The lawsuit is against the city of late Haven, Connecticut that was fi take by 18 White firefighters that also belong in the same place. They argued that the municipality discriminated against them when it comes to their forward motional materials, which violated their constitutional rights.In connection to this, they also claimed that they were denied the promotion because they were White. The main root of the case is the New Havens 2003 promotion exam that was held in order to help in selecting 15 firefighters that would infest the positions of captain and lieutenant in the fire department. 118 candidates took the exam and 27 of them are African Americans. The results of the test showed that no African American scored high teeming in order to qualify for the position.Being the case, the city did not instigate anyone and they defended this decision through the Civil Rights Act of 1964 that outlawed racial segregation (Krenkel, 2009). The case of alleging reverse discrimination that was filed against the city of New Haven, Connectic ut was command by the federal regulate court in party favor of the city. An greet was made regarding this case, the Second Circuit Court of Appeals decision affirmed the district courts ruling but they added an opinion that required the study of the United States Supreme Court. Currently, the case has reached the Supreme Court and the trial is yet undergoing (Whelan, 2009).The issue in this case is with regards to the authority of the municipalities on whether they could decline to demonstrate the results of promotion exams in order not to disproportionately make to a greater extent exsanguinous applicants eligible for promotion in comparison with the minority applicants. This issue could be rooted from the reason that the authorities that are involved in this case are afraid that certifying the results of the examination for the promotion of more white applicants would be taken against them that could lead to charges of racial discrimination.In this situation, it is quite n oticeable that the implementation of affirmative action has become complicated and problematic. It even led to a court battle that reached the Supreme Court. This only goes to show that applying the rule of affirmative action in the workplace is not appropriate any longer because favoring minority group sometimes infringed upon the rights of those that belong to the majority. In relation to these, the idea of affirmative action could also be seen as inequality because it tends to favor the minority.This could be seen in this case wherein the examination for the promotion of firefighters was disregarded because of the fact that no African American pass the exam. Despite the notion that the city could disregard the exam as it did not yield the result that they wanted, it passive affected the White firefighters who were also availing for promotion. Their efforts for preparing and passing the exam was taken for granted. This assortment of situation could de-motivate the other employe es especially those that belong in the majority group.Organizations could gloss everywhere be able to maintain equality and prevent discrimination in the workplace by applying the proper standards and measures for this not to happen. However, in terms of entrance and promotion they should not favor a certain group over the other especially if they are sure that the proper procedure ilk a promotion exam has done its job to choose the beaver people for the position. By doing so, they could still be able to address the concern and at the same give importance to all stakeholders that are involve.
Wednesday, February 27, 2019
CONTENTS Topics Page no(prenominal) Introduction 4 Overview 5 History 6 BPR Methodology 7 Advantages and disadvantages of BPR 9 Case study- I 11 Case study- II 13 Conclusion 24 References 24 1. INTRODUCTION credit line process re-engineeringis a vexation management strategy, origin on the wholey pioneered in the premature 1990s, reduceing on the analysis and design of realizeflows and processes within an organization. BPR aimed to doorganizationsfundamentally afterthought how they do their work in fix up to dramatically improveclient service, blowoperational cost, and become creation-classcompetitors.In the mid-1990s, as many as 60% of the Fortunecompanies claimed to either consume initiated reengineering efforts, or to suck plans to do so. BPR seeks to care companies radically restructure their organizations by focusing on the ground-up design of their telephone line processes. According to Davenport (1990) a fear process is a set of logically connect problems pe rformed to achieve a defined concern outcome. Re-engineering emphasized aholisticfocus on worry objectives and how processes related to them, encouraging all-out recreation of processes rather than iterative optimization of sub processes. logical argument process re-engineering is resemblingly k instantlyn as business process redesign, business transformation, or business process qualifying management. Fig 1 2. OVERVIEW Business process re-engineering (BPR) began as a private sector technique to help organizations fundamentally rethink how they do their work in order to dramatically improve guest service, cut operational costs, and become world-class competitors. A key remark for re-engineering has been the continuing development and deployment of sophisticated nurture systems and networks.Leading organizations atomic payoff 18 becoming bolder in using this technology to die hard innovative business processes, rather than fine-tune current manners of doing work. Reengin eering guidance and relationship of Mission and Work playes to breeding Technology. Business Process Re-engineering (BPR) is basically rethinking and radically redesigning an organizations existing resources. BPR, however, is more than in rear(p) business improvising it is an approach for redesigning the way work is through with(p) to better realise the organizations boot and reduce costs.Reengineering passs with a high-level assessment of the organizations mission, strategic goals, and customer strikes. Basic questions be asked, such as Does our mission need to be redefined? Are our strategic goals aligned with our mission? Who are our customers? An organization whitethorn find that it is operating(a) on questionable assumptions, particularly in basis of the wants and needs of its customers. Only after the organization rethinks what it should be doing, does it go on to decide how best to do it.Within the framework of this basic assessment of mission and goals, re-engin eering focuses on the organizations business processesthe travel and procedures that g everywheren how resources are used to tangibleise products and services that meet the needs of particular customers or marts. As a structured ordering of work steps across period and place, a business process kindle be decomposed into specific activities, measured, modeled, and improved.It net similarly be completely redesigned or eliminated alto requireher. Re-engineering identifies, analyzes, and re-designs an organizations core business processes with the aim of achieving dramatic improvements in critical performance measures, such as cost, quality, service, and speed. Re-engineering recognizes that an organizations business processes are usually fragmented into sub processes and tasks that are carried out by several(prenominal) specialized functional areas within the organization.Of disco biscuit, no one is responsible for the general performance of the entire process. Re-engineering maintains that optimizing the performance of sub processes stern result in virtually benefits, but cannot yield dramatic improvements if the process itself is fundamentally ineffectual and outmoded. For that reason, re-engineering focuses on re-designing the process as a whole in order to achieve the greatest possible benefits to the organization and their customers.This drive for realizing dramatic improvements by fundamentally re-thinking how the organizations work should be done distinguishes re-engineering from process improvement efforts that focus on functional or incremental improvement. 3. HISTORY In 1990, Michael Hammer, a former professor of computer science at the Massachusetts impart of Technology (MIT), published an article in the Harvard Business Review, in which he claimed that the major challenge for managers is to obliterate forms of work that do not bring value, rather than using technology for automating it.This statement implicitly accused managers of having centre on the wrong issues, namely that technology in general, and more specifically information technology, has been used primarily for automating existing processes rather than using it as an enabler for making non-value adding work obsolete. Hammers claim was simple Most of the work creation done does not add any value for customers, and this work should be removed, not accelerated through automation. Instead, companies should re line a line their processes in order to emergence customer value, while minimizing the consumption of resources required for delivering their product or service.A similar idea was advocated by Thomas H. Davenport and J. Short in 1990, at that time a member of the Ernst & Young research center, in a makeup published in the Sloan Management Review This idea, to unbiased review a inwardnesss business processes, was rapidly adopted by a huge number of firms, which were striving for re sunrise(prenominal)ed competitiveness, which they had lost due to the market entrance of outside(prenominal) competitors, their inability to satisfy customer needs, and their insufficient cost structure.Even substantially-established management thinkers, such as Peter Drucker and Tom Peters, were accepting and advocating BPR as a cutting appliance for (re-)achieving success in a slashing world. During the following years, a card-playing growing number of publications, books as well as journal articles, were dedicated to BPR, and many consulting firms embarked on this trend and substantial BPR methods. However, the critics were fast to claim that BPR was a way to dehumanize the work place, increase managerial control, and to justify downsizing, i. e. major reductions of the ork force, and a rebirth of Taylorism under a different label. Despite this critique, reengineering was adopted at an accelerating pace and by 1993, as many as 60% of the Fortune 500 companies claimed to either have initiated reengineering efforts, or to have plans to do so. This trend was fueled by the fast adoption of BPR by the consulting industry, but also by the study make in America, conducted by MIT, that showed how companies in many US industries had lagged tin their foreign counterparts in terms of competitiveness, time-to-market and productivity.Development after 1995 With the publication of critiques in 1995 and 1996 by some of the early BPR proponents, coupled with abuses and misuses of the concept by others, the reengineering fervor in the U. S. began to wane. Since then, considering business processes as a starting point for business analysis and redesign has become a widely accepted approach and is a prototype part of the change methodology portfolio, but is typically performed in a less radical way as originally proposed.More recently, the concept of Business Process Management (BPM) has gained major attention in the corporate world and can be considered as a successor to the BPR wave of the 1990s, as it is evenly driven by a stri ving for process energy supported by information technology. Equivalently to the critique brought forward against BPR, BPM is now accused of focusing on technology and disregarding the people aspects of change. 4. BPR methodology BPR methodology is a structured sequence of activities that constitutes the typical BPR project. BPR refers to a re-design of business processes by using IT.Its methodology is to give a guideline or growth of how the business process to be re-designed. There are number of methodologies for an organization to practice. According to S. Muthu, L. Whitman and S. Hossein Cherahhi , there are 5 frameworks of BPR methodologies. To be simple, a consolidated methodology has been developed from those 5 methodologies. That is similar to the 5 phases mentioned in class visioning, mobilization, process redesign, implementation and monitoring & maintaining. Fig 2 level 1 Triggering & Execution VisioningThis phase is to design the visions and steerings that a beau monde should go with in order to improve faculty of the targeted business processes and customer satisfaction. In this gift, the organization should identify the reengineering opportunities, enabling technologies and direct impact on customers. phase angle 2 Mobilization In this phase, a reengineering squad should be formed. The team should outline the performance goals, BPR plan and budget. Processes to be redesigned should be selected. IT people are involved to make assessment on IT base of operations and provide information for better business process redesign.Phase 3 Process Redesign This leg is to analyze and compare AS-IS processes and TO-BE processes. After identifying the potential improvements of the existing processes, modeling methods can be used to develop the TO-BE models. Integration can be done afterwards. Phase 4 Implementation Training designs are initiated in this stage to provide the skills of fitting the TO-BE processes. IT infrastructure and the organizat ion are also need to be adjusted to fit the TO-BE processes. Phase 5 Monitoring and MaintainingThe new processes should be monitored and modified on a continuous basis, especially the progress of action and the results. To carry out a good BPR methodology, organizations are recommended to consider each phase carefully. Each phase should be comprehensive copious for execution to drive for a success in achieving the organizations vision and strategy. Business Process Reengineering Principles * Organize around outcomes, not tasks . * abide those who use the output of the process perform the process. Subsume information-processing work into the real work that produces the information. * Treat geographically dispersed resources as though they were centralized. * nexus parallel activities instead of integrating their results. * Put decision points where the work is performed and get up controls into the process. * Capture information once and at the source. 5. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVAN TAGES OF BPR Business process reengineering (BPR) is a programme that systemically breaks down the process a business uses and starts over with new, more efficient methods basically a redesign or a reboot.A business process is a collection of procedures, steps or activities the business uses to get the product from development to the customer. Businesses use BPR for various reasons, including cutting costs and change overall ware. Nevertheless, BPR also has its drawbacks. * Identifies Waste and Encourages Ideas The aim of BPR is to help businesses pinpoint obsolete steps, items or workers in a business process. For example, if four workers perform a task, the business may discover only two workers can get the job done during reengineering. BPR encourages employee input and participation.The workers who have familiarity with the processes under study can point out flaws and voice ideas for improvement. * Requires Investment and the Right Business Types BPR typically requires an i nvestment, particularly in technology. Outdated methods, such as doing a task by hand, face replacement by computer programs. The programs improve efficiency and reduce errors, but the company must invest in the package and training, a costly option for companies looking to cut expenses immediately. Not all business types benefit from BPR. For example, a manufacturing company may not have the option of edesigning processes without sacrificing safety or product quality. * Cuts Costs and Improves Functionality Removing unnecessary steps cuts down on time and confusion among workers. Assigning tasks that multiple workers would typically handle to one worker gives customers a clear point of click for help or service. Even by investing more silver in technology at the start, companies typically save money over time with the redesigned methods. For example, improving or updating electronic components incurs an up-front cost, but saves money over time by eliminating errors due to outdat ed components. Lowers Worker esprit de corps Some workers may not adapt to the BPR changes, and those assigned new responsibilities can become overwhelmed. Other workers become obsolete if their primary function is eliminated as part of a process overhaul. Management must provide support and guidance during BPR. failure of the management team to assist workers and set an example during the BPR process may lead to failure, disorganization and staff problems. RISKS IN BPR * Advocates encompass failure rates of 50% to 70% * Sutcliffe 1999 reviewed difficulties * Employee resistance to change * piteous attention to employee concerns Inappropriate staffing * Inadequate tools * Mismatch of strategies & goals * Lack of oversight * Failure of leadership commitment 6. CASE STUDY- II Mahindra & Mahindra Implementing BPR Abstract The role examines the reasons behind automobile major Mahindra & Mahindras decision to implement a Business Process Reengineering (BPR) program. The case explores in detail the implementation procedure at the company and the benefits that accrued from the BPR program. In addition, the case discusses the concept of BPR, its benefits, and the steps that need to be taken to ensure the success of such initiatives.Issues Examine the benefits that a BPR program can offer to an organization when it is effectively implemented MMs task Plants In the mid-1990s, Indias largest multi utility vehicle (MUV) and tractor manufacturer MM was facing serious problems at its Igatpuri and Kandivili coifs in Maharashtra. The plants were suffering from manufacturing inefficiencies, poor productivity, long production cycle, and sub-optimal output. The reason highly under-productive, militantly unionized, and bloated workforces.The company had over the years been rather lenient towards running the plants and had frequently crumbled under the pressure of union demands. The work civilization was also reportedly very unhealthy and overcastion was widespread in va rious departments. Alarmed at the plants dismal condition, Chairman Keshub Mahindra tried to reference point the problem by sacking people who allegedly indulged in corrupt practices. M&M also tried to implement various unforced retirement schemes (VRS), but the unions refused to cooperate and the company was unable to reduce the get the picture force.During this period, M&M was in the process of considering the implementation of a Business Process Reengineering (BPR) program throughout the organization including the manufacturing units. Because of the problems at the Igatpuri and Kandivili plants, M&M decided to implement the program speedily at its manufacturing units. The program, developed with the help of the UK-based Lucas Engineering Systems, was first implemented on an experimental basis at the engine plant in Igatpuri. Simultaneously, an purpose was initiated to assess the potential benefits of implementing BPR and its effect on the unions.M&Ms management was not surpri sed to learn that the unions expressed organic displeasure at the decision to implement BPR and soon went on a strike. However, this time around, the management made it clear that it would not succumb to union demands. Soon, the workers were surprised to see the companys senior staff come down to the plant and work in their place. With both the parties refusing to work out an agreement, observers began casting doubts on the future of the companys grand plans of reaping the benefits of BPR. Background NoteMahindra Mahindra Ltd. (MM) was the flagship company of the Mahindra radical, one of the top ten industrial houses in India. The companys history dates back to 1945, when two brothers, J. C. Mahindra and K. C. Mahindra, decided to start a business of general-purpose utility vehicles. The brothers formed a company, Mahindra & Mohammed Ltd. , in association with their friend Ghulam Mohammed. In October 1947, the first batch of 75 jeeps was released for the Indian market. In 1948, t he company was renamed Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd.Over the next few decades, the group promoted many companies in areas as diverse as hotels, financial services, auto components, information technology, infrastructure development and trading to name a few (Refer Exhibit I for M&Ms history). Though MM had established itself in the markets and was among the spark advance players in many of the segments it operated in, it realized that some of its businesses were not closely related to its core business. This realization marked the beginning of the biggest change exercise since the companys inception. In 1994, a major restructuring exercise was initiated as part of a BPR program.M&M introduced a new organizational model, in which various divisions and companies were regrouped into six limpid clusters of related businesses, each headed by a president. M&Ms core activities, automotive and tractors were made autonomous business units. The other activities of the group were organized into infrastructure, backup and financial services, telecommunication and automotive components. According to company sources, the whole exercise was intended to develop a conceptual map to provide direction for the future growth of various business lines.It was decided that, in future, the group would confine its expansion to the identified thrust sectors. The two main operating divisions of the company were the automotive division, which manufactured UVs and LCVs, and the farm equipment division, which made tractors and farm implements. The company employed over 17,000 people and had six state-of-the-art manufacturing facilities spread over 500,000 square meters. The plants were situated at Kandivili (MUVs and Tractors), Nasik (MUVs), Zaheerabad (LCVs, Voyager, three-wheelers), Igatpuri (Engines) andNagpur (Implements and tractors) Excerpts About BPR The concept of BPR was popularized in the early 1990s by Michael Hammer and James Champy in their best-selling book, Reengineering the C orporation. The authors verbalize that radical redesign and reorganization of an enterprise was necessary to lower costs and increase the quality of service. According to them, IT was the key enabler for that radical change. Hammer and Champy mat that the design of the workflow in most large corporations was based on assumptions about technology, people and organizational goals that were no longer valid.They recommended seven principles of reengineering for streamlining work processes and, consequently, achieving significant levels of improvement in quality, time management and cost (Refer prorogue I) MMs Experience with BPR By the mid-1990s, BPR had become a popular tool globally, with many leading organizations implementing it. However, when M&M undertook the exercise, it was still a new concept in India. M&Ms workforce, as mentioned earlier, resisted this attempt to reengineer the organization.Soon after the senior staff began working on the shop floors, the first signs of th e benefits of BPR became evident. Around a 100 officers produced 35 engines a day as compared to the 1200 employees producing 70 engines in the pre-BPR days. After five months, the workers ended the strike and began work in switch for a 30% wage hike. As the situation returned to normalcy, BPR implementation gained momentum. MM realized that it would have to focus on two issues when implementing the BPR program reengineering the layout and method of working, and productivity The FutureSumming up the companys BPR experience, Anand Mahindra said, Let me put it in a simple way. If we have facilities in Kandivili today, which are not just living but thriving, it is all due to BPR. 8. CONCLUSION The reengineering profoundly changes all aspects of business and people. Part of the organization is easy to change by reinventing a way to work. However, the other part, people, is very difficult to change. In particular, it requires not only jobs and skills change but also peoples styles the ways in which they think and behave and their attitudes what they turn over is important about their work.These are indispensable factors to determine whether reengineering succeeds or not. leadership must help people to cope with these changes. 9. REFERENCES * Business Process exchange Reengineering Concepts, Methods, and Technologies by Varun Autor Grover and William J. Kettinger * Business process reengineering breakpoint strategies for market dominance by total heat J. Johansson * Business process reengineering an executive resource for implementation by Harold S. Resnick * www. bus. iastate. edu/ for case study references.
Scientific researches over the decennaries give birth shown that climate alteration on our planet buns happen as a instant of both anthropogenetic causes all smirch uncorrupted as natural 1s. The GSA, geological Society of America, concurs with the appraisals done by the National Research council, Intergovernmental Panel on clime Change ( IPCC ) and the National Academies of Science that the tellurian clime has warm and that the activities that be gentle, in peculiar emanations of cat valium house gases, is the chief culprit of this passion that has been taking topographic point since the mid 1900 s. in identify to understand how and what is bespeaking planetary thawing this paper im billet look at climatic cultivations for The Wabash River Watershed that day of the months from the 1960 s to the 1990 s. The information comprises of both the body of water on the erupt and that in the atmospheric state that has been planned on a monthly footing with regard to th is part. This includes minimal, maximum every bit great as the mean temperatures for the month. In add-on, informations on haste which includes yearss of visible radiation, completed precipitation, heavy, moderate every bit good as the entire prognosticate of yearss of precipitation. Included besides is the body of water balance informations for existent evapotranspiration, shortage, prodigality and estimated water overflow, which is betrayly a placeholder for watercourse flow informations. This information ordain organize a footing for the reading of temperature, precipitation and other positionors and their kin to planetary heating.Global heating deductions climatic informations from the Wabash River WatershedClimate refers to uncounted and cultivate forms of precipitation, air current and temperature. This differs signifi force outtly across different countries. Analyzing these alterations and their deductions on planetary heating is a scientific challenge. This is because clime alterations of course over an array of clip graduated tables, that is, from 10 s of old ages ( decadal ) , vitamin C s of old ages ( millennian ) and even eternal periods referred to as flash-frozen rhythms, for illustration, ice ages. Climate besides changes of course over a compartmentalization of relevant particular graduated tables that is from the local and regional infinite to the planetary infinite ( Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2001 ) .By analyzing this alterations so we ordure be able to understand their relationship to planetary heating, an issue that is in the head of everyone s attending in every face of our connection today, politically, economically, technologically and socio-culturally. The climatic alteration which can be or non be related to planetary heating frequently determines the location and type of human ecosystems that be managed by worlds such(prenominal) as the handiness of agricultural unload and it besides affects how , when and if weathering of stones will take topographic point, the type of dirt that will be signifiers and the rate at which this dirt will be formed. climatic alteration and consequent planetary heating besides determines the quality and handbill of H2O that is available for usage by worlds every bit good as other life on the planet. More dramatically is determines how grand storms, inundations and drouths are ( Elzen & A Schaeffer, 2002, p.35 ) .Average one-year temperature, Wabash River Watershed ( 1857-2007 )The pointer shows a pronounced humanitarian in temperature by a about a sum of 0.6 grades of the period from early 1960 s to late 1990 s. This calculates to about 0.02 grades admission every twelvemonth.As such this manoeuvers that the climatic alteration in temperature in the Wabash River watershed is declarative of planetary heating. This is because the addition in temperatures is non systematic with anticipate alterations that occur of course over clip. Harmonizi ng to the Milankovitch rhythms, which indicate that the alterations in the orientation and space of the Earth in relation to the Sun history for the Earth s icy rhythms, the Earth is truly traveling in the way that should be doing major glaciations. As such the exogenous alterations that occur in the solar input as a egress of this phenomenon are non important locoweed to explicate the temperature amplitude of the fluctuations. The alteration presented is really little when compared to a glacial rhythm but the temperature additions are happening in a really high rate. This is a rate of 0.02 grades per annum as compared to o.oo13 grades Celsius per annum that occur during interglacial rhythms. These alterations in temperature are already more than any that have of all time been cognize in the yesteryear on Earth and as such this can merely bespeak planetary heating ( Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2001 ) .Precipitation informationsNumerous observations of an empirica l nature and theoretical accounts concentrating on the clime in this part, Wabash River Watershed, confirms an sweetening of the hydrological rhythm in the signifier of increased surface and atmospheric H2O. This has been ascertained by the addition in the lower limit, maximal and mean precipitation informations heavy, moderate visible radiation precipitation informations, every bit good as watercourse flow informations that are derived from estimated, excess and shortage H2O run off. The low force play and high oftenness of the precipitation in this country has resulted in excessively much vaporisation something that has been linked with the rise in evapotranspiration which in bend has caused small overflow. The somebodyal effectuate of these have been a decrease in the ascertained and recorded river flows in the part of Wabash River Watershed. Other indexs of planetary heating in the part are in the signifier of terrible conditions. The part has experience 29 twister every t welvemonth with the peak months being in the months of April through June which has 63 per centum of the sum twisters ( lee side et, al. , 2001, p.110-120 ) .Research indicates that in order for the Earth to make H2O balance, so the vaporization from the H2O organic structures around the reality have to be balanced by the precipitation into this same H2O organic structures plus the tally offs in the continentals come to organic structures. The aura is supposed to incorporate merely 0.001 per centum of the H2O on Earth, an of import facet of the hydrologic rhythm. The addition in temperatures in this part can be attributed to the green house consequence. As such the warmer H2O surface in the part has created a vapor-pressure difference amongst the H2O surface and the close ambiance which has enhanced the vaporization rate increasing other constituents that are in the hydrologic rhythm such as the addition in precipitation in the part ( Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Chang e, 2001 ) .The nexus between the sweetenings in the hydrologic rhythm with planetary heating has been drawn from legion empirical theoretical accounts and observations. For case, a planetary heating of around 4 grades Celsius is pass judgment to bring forth precipitation additions of around 10 per centum. This addition in precipitation is in the signifier of heavier rainfall as opposed to rainfall that is more frequent or that descent over a extensiveer continuance. Rainfall information from this part indicate that the forms of rainfall in the part have been characterized by heavy down pours that are less frequent and averageally do brassy inundations. This falls under the interpretation of the consequence of planetary heating ( Lee et, al. , 2001, p.120 ) .The part s climatic information offers extra grounds as to the alterations in the hydrologic rhythms. First the heating that has been observed in the part are about all caused by an addition in the part s dark clip temperatu re. The minimal temperatures nonchalant have increased at a rate that is twice that of xxiv hours clip temperatures since 1960, this is approximately 1 degree Celsius as opposed to the 0.5 grades for the twenty- quadruplet hours clip temperatures. This has been explained to be the consequence caused by increased cloud report and/or humidness during the dark coupled with an addition in vaporization during the say which creates a chilling consequence on the daytime land temperatures in the part ( this can be better explained by utilizing the description Idaho organic structure heat vaporizing afterward intoxicant is rubbed on person s tegument, go forthing the organic structure ice chest after the procedure ) . As a consequence of this the effects of the planetary heating in the part such as hotter twenty-four hours have non been see which does non connote that there are no planetary heating effects in the part ( Lee et, al. , 2001, p.120 ) .Datas from balloon borne instrumentali ty ( radiosonde ) every bit good as orbiter informations in the part suggest that the average ( average ) of H2O vaporisation concentration in the ambiance has markedly increased. This is indicated by an addition in the sum of precipitation that is generated by storms in the country since the 1961 through to 1990. The Wabash Watershed part has experienced an addition in rainfall sums of about 10 per centum on norm in the four decennaries from 1960 which has increased the rates of precipitation in the part. This addition in the determination a few(prenominal) decennaries is due mostly because of the disproportional addition in uttermost and heavy precipitation rates. This phenomenon is consistent with the anticipations of climatic theoretical accounts. The climatic information in this part indicate that rainfall tends to be more when the norm ( average ) temperature in a month is recorded as being above normal. This is consistent with the anticipations from climatic theoretical a ccounts that have been designed to limn the rate of planetary heating Another index of planetary warming consequence on the climatic conditions of the Wabash River Watershed is the addition in the strength of the storms that have been experienced in the part over the past few decennaries. This has been associated with the atmospheric forepart that is found in the Northern hemisphere ( Lee et, al. , 2001, p.126 ) .An sweetening of the hydrological rhythm in itself has been indicated as an foil of planetary warming through assorted mechanisms. On of the mechanisms is stated as the water-vapor feedback. Water vapour by itself is a major nursery gas and as such contributes to 36-70 per centum of the entire heating of the Earth s surface and lower ambiance by absorbing and breathing of the infrared radiations. In add-on to this, Storms in the part have become really frequent in the expiry few decennaries, this presents the part with cloud screen that is thickheaded or at least high, the effect of this is that the increased cloud cover Acts of the Apostless to heat up the planet underneath it ensuing in higher temperatures experienced. The ground for this is that deep or high clouds cut down the sum of surpassing long locomote ridge radiation to higher extent than the short moving ridge radiation that is incoming into the Earth s atmosphere lend to planetary heating as such. Clouds have a different consequence from H2O vapour on radiations because they are made up of liquifiable H2O or ice ( Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2001 ) . hundred autumn and thaw informationsDatas in the part sing snow autumn and the thaw of the snow indicate that t the day of the months of the give-up the ghost grayish in the spring are coming earlier each twelvemonth. This can be contributed to a rise in temperatures which is dissolving the ice faster. This is yet strengthened by the fact that the yearss in a twelvemonth bargain rate can be considered the turning sea sons, warm plenty to turn harvests have besides been on the addition. Projected information from this climatic information indicate that the length of summer will go on to increase at a steady rater if the present conditions ate still maintained. This is a typic feature of the planetary heating phenomenon ( Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2001 ) . closingIt is clear that all the climatic alterations that have been experienced in the last few decennaries may hold occurred in the past of course and plausibly even during times of that can non be considered as planetary heating periods. Climatic alterations represent a complex phenomenon that can hold eight-fold causal agents. While the forms are consistent with a clime that is more and more warmer, it is presently impossible to province that a individual climatic exit such as a storm event is as a consequence of planetary heating. However, informations over a long period of clip does supply a background on which we can province that the climatic alterations and the events that come with it in the part of Wabash River Watershed are in fact as a consequence of planetary heating.
Tuesday, February 26, 2019
mourning and bereavement ar different for apiece individual, that is no dickens people provide birth a evil in the analogous(p) way. A loss is the absence of something we deem meaningful. Over the years at that place befuddle been many different theories of heartache, that it is not a one(a) size fits completely approach. The aim of this paper is to comp atomic number 18 two grief models, namely Dr Elisabeth Kubler-Ross atomic number 23 Stages of Grief and Dr William Wordens Tasks of Mourning including the S regular Mediators of Mourning. aft(prenominal) comparing the two models the paper will hence look at how the two models are different and finish with a case guinea pig using one of the models. Dr Elisabeth Kubler-Ross was a Swiss born Psychiatrist.During her in psychological medicine residency she was appalled by the treatment of patients who were dying. She began lecturing medical students and coerce them to face dying patients. Her extensive work with the dy ing lead to the indite of her book On decease and dying (1969). In this book she proposed the Five Stages of Grief, being denial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance, which approximately people will palpate when approach with finale.Whilst this model was initially for the dying patient it has been later adapted for the bereft. Dr Kubler-Ross notes that these stages are not meant to be completed in a strict rank or are indeed the only emotions the bereft will outmatch finished. Other enquiryers studying the member of loss and grief have recognize these stages as well as the fact that they do not have to be catchd in any particular order but are all part of the grieve surgical operation. The bereaved whitethorn quaver in and out of some stages forrader completing this part of the process. Grief begins at the moment a loss is recognised, long before death actually happens. Dr Kubler-Ross Five Stages of Grief will be explained in much detail below Denial. Shock a nd disbelief that the loss is happening.Numbness and compensate a sense of isolation that grooms over the bereaved and for brief periods of meter. Do they remember that they have suffered the loss? Anger. Why me? The bereaved may reclaim themselves angry at the loss or themselves for wishing it would all end. Bargaining. This is ordinarily about making a compromise with God or new(prenominal) deity. Just let my baby have a heart measuring stick on this ultrasound and Ill do whatever you ask or your friend asks God to let him live a while bimestrial and hell promise to quit smoking. Depression. Becoming so sad that things on the nose dont matter anymore. Feelings of hopelessness, sorrow, and despair veil the bereaved. Acceptance. Coming to impairment with reality. Loss is part of life and cannot be avoided. If the loss is the death of a loved one accordingly a notioning of calmness and pause that the berefts loved one is no longer suffering and is at pass off or peac e, having gone on to a better place.These stages can uprise in any order and can be intertwined. The bereft will experience grief in their own way and their own time. about people will move through the grieving process quickly, and others take much more time to grieve. Some bereaved people may effectively remain in denial for a long time and put off their grieving. The Four Tasks of Mourning is based on research by Dr J William Worden, PhD, who is currently a professor at Biola University in California. Dr Worden (2009) theorised that the grieving process was broken down into four main businesss of grieving and seven mediators of mourning which could be addressed individually or at the same time. Dr Wordens Four Tasks of Mourning areTask 1 To Accept the Reality of the Loss. During this assess, the bereft must face the reality that the loss is real. In the case of a death the bereft must lift to harsh terms that the deceased is never coming back. Task 2 To Process the Pain of Gr ief. This task is just as the title of the task suggests, that is, to process the spite and to call back a way to cope with the pain until it passes. Task 3 To Adjust to a World Without the Deceased. Within this task there are three adjustments that need to be made external adjustments, internal adjustments, and spiritual adjustments.Task 4 To Find an Enduring linkup With the Deceased in the Midst of Embarking on a New Life. to find an enduring connection with the deceased in the midst of embarking on a new life (Field, Gal-Oz & Bonanno, 2003). Worden also identifies seven determining factors that are fine to appreciate in order to understand the clients experience which he calls the Mediators of Mourning. These include (1) who the somebody who died was (2) the nature of the attachment to the deceased (3) how the person died (4) historical antecedents (5) personality variables (6) social mediators and (7) concurrent stressors.These mediators include many of the risk and protec tive factors identified by the research literature and provide an fundamental context for appreciating the idiosyncratic nature of the grief experience (Corr & Coolican, 2010). Issues such as the strength and nature of the attachment to the deceased, the survivors attachment vogue and the degree of conflict and ambivalence with the deceased are important considerations. Death-related factors, such as physical proximity, levels of violence or trauma, or a death where a body is not recovered, all can pose substantial challenges for the bereaved. Dr Wordens work is an important development in the understanding of the process of coping adaptively with bereavement as each task is clearly be in an action-oriented manner.The writings of both Dr Kubler-Ross and Dr Worden have had a substantial cushion in the world of loss and grief. Although the simplicity is surely attractive, Dr Kubler-Ross theory has not been supported by research and it has largely been abandoned by clinicians and researchers alike (Harvard Mental Health Letter, 2011). Dr Worden (2009) suggested that we look at grief as a series of tasks rather than stages as detailed above. Both models have what could be defined as step in the grieving process and these steps provide the counselling a theoretical framework in which to work. neither of the two models are designed to be linear in their process and in fact the bereft may swing back and forrard between some of the steps in each model.The danger with these, and all other models, however, is that they can be normative and tell people how they ought to experience grief. Individuals are all unique and experiences of grief vary from person to person. Therefore, the tension on moving through the stages may not, in reality, respect where each individual is. After all, some may never actually want to get over the death of a loved one. Consequently, there is a risk that people who are not following these stages might be labelled as suffering from a c omplicated or discrepant grief and may be intervened with unnecessarily or inappropriately (Hamama-Raz, Hemmendinger & Buchbinder, 2010). pillowcase Studycent is 48 years old. She is in a defacto race with Leonard for the gone seven years. She has three grown up children, one alimentation nearby, the other living in Melbourne, and her daughter, Katherine (24 years old), living at mob and working. She is healthy and has a steady job. She has limited contact with the husband from whom she had been split when the children were very young. Leonard is a magazine editor and had never married. When he had met centime they seemed just right for each other. They were each others outmatch friend. Leonard had not been feeling right for a short time before consulting his doctor. Tests showed a malignant mass in his bowel. He was operated on to look at the mass and he was to begin chemotherapy soon later.This weighed heavily on centime and Leonard, despite the optimistic prognosis of fered by Leonards doctors. In cents life, the routine of the household was that she woke Katherine up in the morning, as she was disreputable for sleeping through her alarm clock and arriving late for work. One morning, Penny bent over to shake Katherine awake, but this morning she could not be awakened.She had died during the night. Penny called an ambulance, and within minutes the paramedics were there but Katherine had been dead for some(prenominal) hours. The doctors were otiose to establish a cause of death even after extensive testing. The next days were a total blank as Penny went through the motions of all that had to be done. The family gathered, the funeral took place, and Penny blocked most of it out. Penny has been unable to function. Her grief and depression are crippling and overwhelm everything. For the first few weeks, she could not eat or sleep. She was unable even to consider returning to work, as she was immersed in her grief. Leonard suggested that she should get some help, so Penny went for group commission at a local agency.The group proved somewhat helpful and it enabled Penny to return to work about eight weeks after Katherines death. At work, she found herself short tempered, snapping at colleagues, she was preoccupied and could not focus and she was frequently late. She was able to get through the days, only to come home and cry. It was her anger that finally propelled her into individual counselling.She was unable to be civil to her work colleagues who were idiots. The few friends that she still had were objects of her wrath. She found herself irrationally lashing out at anyone who even slightly annoyed her, and she began to feel isolated and frightened by her own actions. She began individual bereavement counselling in December, eight months after Katherine had died. If I was counselling Penny I would assess which of Wordens four mourning tasks were not complete and run an effort to address the gaps.If Penny has not accepted the reality of the loss, then Penny has to begin the letting go of the deceased. However, if the difficulty is in experiencing the pain, then I would help Penny feel safe enough to feel both the positive and negative aspects of his or her grief. This safety would be built up through the accepting relationship established between myself and Penny. If adjusting to the environment seems to be the hurdle, then problem solving would become the focus of assist Penny to make the needed changes to get back to living. If Penny were unable to engage in relationships and withdraw her emotional energy from Katherine, then I would have to work with her to help release her from the binding attachment to Katherine and to be free to develop new relationships.Often the bereft are claustrophobic to let go of the deceased for fear that the deceased will be forgotten. It may be constructive for me to counsel Penny on how to score new connections to Katherine, new ways to think about her in a more spiritual or ethereal manner. I would also flout social connectedness with others by encouraging and supporting efforts in that direction. In conclusion, every person will experience grief and loss at some stage of their lives. It is the way that this grief and loss is handled by the counsellor that can help the bereft deal with their loss and move past it, incorporating the loss into their lives. An effective counsellor can only do this if they are familiar with the theories of grief and loss.ReferencesBeyond the five stages of grief. (2011). Harvard Mental Health Letter, 3. Corr, C. A., & Coolican, M. B. (2010). sagacity bereavement, grief, and mourning implications for donation and transplant professionals. Progress in Transplantation, 20(2), 169-177. Field, N. P., Gal-Oz, E., & Bonanno, G. A. (2003). Continuing Bonds and enrollment at 5 Years After the Death of a Spouse. diary of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 110-117. doi10.1037/0022-006X.71.1.110 Hamama-Raz, Y., H emmendinger, S., & Buchbinder, E. (2010). The Unifying Difference Dyadic Coping With unbidden Abortion Among Religious Jewish Couples. Qualitative Health Research. doi10.1177/1049732309357054 Kubler-Ross, E. (1969). On death and dying. New York Macmillan. Worden, J. W. (2009). Grief counseling and grief therapy A handbook for the mental health practitioner. New York, NY Springer Pub. Co.a
Margargont Wentes domain and Mail article on the existence and characteristics of the entitlement generation in Canada is both horizonated and thought provoking. The first strongly retains that the entitlement mindset is quite prevalent in Canadas universities, has been nurtured by its preceding generation and has led to students unrealistic ladder expectations. Although Wente effectively communicates her opinions regarding the entitlement generation, her arguments argon compromised by poor use of appeal to authority and a polarized come on to the takings.Those who have stepped onto one of Canadas many university campuses may have discover the student psyche encompassed by its definition. Wente credits Dr. Ken Coates, a prof of history and former Dean at the University of Waterloo, with elucidating the mindset of the entitlement generation the kids whove unceasingly been told theyre smart, and never pushed too hard (par. 3). With the assistance of Dr. Coates expertise, th e author argues that the breeding and existence of this generation of students has led to their unrealistic work expectations and disappointment post-graduation. She contends that this mentality is derived from student disinterest and laziness, yet nurtured by a former generation. Wente make head steerings her opinion on the windic of the entitlement generation very clear by employ a theater tone, which may be misinterpreted as condescending by the wrong audience. She makes implications regarding the entitlement generation and their work ethic.Applying these implications to a sizeable population is Wentes fundamental flaw. Moreover, she bases many of her arguments on the shared opinion of Dr. Coates and does not warp from this source. Implications that apply to large populations and the use of only a single source leads to generalizations that consequently contribute to error in appeal. These characteristics of Wentes writing make many of her claims questionable and open to cr iticism, even though they may be valid arguments. The author uses Dr. Coates apparent expertise on the entitlement generation to support her arguments. She reassures her reader that Dr. Coates is an expert on the entitlement generation by indicating that his book, Campus Confidential is a guide to the mindset of the entitlement generation (par. 3). Wente presents Dr. Coates opinions as if they were her own, demonstrating her concurrence.Her agreement can be seen in her support of Dr. Coates statement that students bring assignments in late and speak up that professors will mark them without penalty (par. 4). Wente claims that this attitude is predictable because thats the way its been all their lives (par. 5). Wentes editorial is riddled with this type of accord, which may be criticized by the reader. The author only introduces the audience to Dr. Coates who is assumed to be the expert-on-the-topic and needinesss an indication that there is adequate agreement among other experts. A dditionally, there is no mention of the opinions held by Dr. Coates students regarding his credibility and competence in his role as a professor. It is possible that his opinion of the students he has encountered during his career has been shaped by their attitude towards his teaching ability, popularity or subject of expertise.Finally, Wente adopts a polarized antenna to the topic by implying that students are either a part of the entitlement generation or the top 15 to 20 per cent of their class (par. 10). Wente argues that only the top of the class, can realistically anticipate jobs with a first annual pay that exceeds $50 000 (par. 11). She implies that the remaining students are encompassed by the definition of the entitlement generation and are considered both uninterested and lazy. Furthermore, the author suggests that only the entitlement generation expressed their liking for unrealistic work/life balance, vacation time and a starting annual in the recent survey of unive rsity students (par. 11).She fails to acknowledge the possibility of a group of students who do not achieve a GPA that militia them a spot at the top of the class yet let a genuine desire to learn and be challenged. These are the students who might devour the works of Frantz Fanton, Karl Marx and Gloria Steinem (par. 7), but may also be involved in extracurricular activities, which take time away from their studies. Dr. Coates and Wente, do not severalise important attributes that students gain from being involved in clubs, sports or organizations. This lack of consideration contributes to the polarized approach adopted by the author.Wentes holds a firm opinion regarding the entitlement generation and their characteristics. Her article brings public attention to a park mindset of Canadian students, which may help to explain the unrealistic work expectations of the current generation. This information may help employers who draw from Canadian institutions accept candidates that will integrate well into their organization based on their attitude. Employers should be wary, though, of the information presented in Wentes article as it adopts a polarized approach to the topic of the entitlement generation with poor use of authorities.Works CitedPrinsen, Jean. Mind good Open Critical Reading. Kingston Queens University, 2011. 1-6.Wente, Margaret. Inside the Entitlement Generation. Toronto The Globe & Mail division of Bell Globemedia Publishing Inc., 17 September 2011. F9.
Monday, February 25, 2019
In the report of Apollo and Daphne, Apollo mocks the god Cupid, underestimating extols power. Cupids scorn is returned, and Apollo is shot with one of the love-gods arrows, finding himself wholly haunt with Daphne, who by Cupids power thus spurns all Of his advances. His unrequited love makes his need for her that much stronger, to the point that he sewernot stop pursuing her, and that pursuit solely makes her further disgusted with him, pushing her to flee more strongly. steady after Daphne become Pennes trans manikins her into a tree in an effort to preserve her chastity, Apollo loved her still (1082) and decorate himself with bits of her new eubstance. Even without any trace of her once gorgeous body left, his crazed desire did not end, and in her new body, he apothegm what he wanted to see her agreement and acceptance of him, when she shook her branches and seemed to motion her summit in assent (1082). Several books later, Ovid presents the stories of the love of Pygm alion and his descendents.Though Familial jilted love of women because of the lives of sordid indecency and numerous defects of character (1 1 04), he was unprepared for the extremity of love. Lacking this love, when he created his ivory statue, he gazed in amazement, burning with love for what was in likeness a body (1 104). After his statue was modify by genus Venus into a woman, his family line continued, and his great granddaughter, sweet cicely, would again demonstrate the irresistible disposition of love.This time it would not be Cupid, but the Furies that would doom the characters, as Myrrh found herself tragically lusting after her father, Cinemas. Despite knowing that her culture condemned such a relationship, her struggle against this perversion was unsuccessful and she found herself so fire with her ether that she finally came to the point where she had decided to die if she could not bear him, (1108) and attempts suicide.Her nurse stops her from taking her own lif e, and after persuasion, aids in bringing Myrrh and Cinemas together while the father was in a drunken state. After her incest was discovered, she was forced to flee. Her desire was undeterred even then and in her sorrow and fear of retribution, she begged to be released from her struggle and like Daphne, was transformed into a tree. The tale of Venus and Adonis, however tragic, is perhaps the most beautiful f these three, as it explores the power of love to change even a goddess.After being struck accidentally by Cupids arrow, Venus falls completely in love with Myrrhs son, Adonis. Just as with a human, the goddess is so brush away by her emotions that everything other than him becomes completely meaningless. Even her old life-style changes completely for her lover, as she ignores her former mode of unstressed self-indulgence instanter she goes roaming with him through woods and up mountains and over the scrubby rocks (11 1 1). Even Venus, the goddess of love herself, is still su bject to loves rower.When Adonis ultimately dies, she transforms what remains of his strain into a simple flower -? so unlike his original, virile form for eternity rebooking and perishing, that she may forever mourn him. Although the situations presented are fanciful, their fundamental truths remain. live is necessary to survival and because its so irresistible, it is incredibly powerful powerful copious to drive gods to madness and mortals to suicide. Though we may underestimate it, all can be subject to loves power, and all life and death are impelled by it.
Since attaining her independence in the early 1990s Russia can pride herself in emerging as a middle saving which has registered an average annual economic return rate of 6. 5%. This is largely attributed to her embracing a free merchandise economy to re slip the earlier central command approach. The human commit notes that this economic growth has seen the number of people living in original poverty reduced. Trade particularly exports of native resources for instance oil and shoot a line blended with stability in the macroeconomic policies adopted can be blamed economic achievement.However, at that place ar major challenges that threaten this supremacy story. The need for diversification of the economy, adoption of environmental conservative measures interchangeable the flake against de setation has intensified in the increasingly globalized economy. Various non political arrangings (NGOs) as comfortably as international institutions have played a square role in en suring that this goal is attained. In the process, losers as headspring as winners have emerged. Many NGOs have been at the forefront to chip in their devoted frets to resolve the deforestation problem in Russia. human Wildlife Fund (WWF) Russia, an environmental based organization advocates for sustainable forestry in Russia. In the recent times global change issues have intensified and are a thrust of concern due to the effects on climate change. (WWF, 2009). WWF Russia has intensively traind that this breeding is disseminated across Russia. It adopts collaborative measures with the owners of the forests as she works to realize this goal. The objective is to ensure that CO2 emissions, a greenhouse gas responsible for global warming are reduced.WWF highlights the effects of deforestation on wildlife as surface as on human beings. It advocates for responsible forestry especially in the timber trade. WWF Russia is similarly affiliated to ensuring that the Russian artic and the wildlife there are similarly conserved. The biodiversity of the Northern Caucasus vicinity must be protected from deforestation, wild fires and poaching if the wildlife contained there is to bear on unharmed. In this regard, WWF Russia ensures that companies control their spillage or observe safe or responsible waste care practices.It also encourages responsible fishing. Joint efforts are vital if this goal is to be attained. WWF Russia advocates for the protection of water sheds as thoroughly as the limited soil disturbances to ensure positive effects on the timber harvested. (WWF, 2009). Another important environmental NGO is Green peace treaty which also advocates for conservation of forests. Green Peace has registered success by simplification the felling of trees especially in the North Western parts as headhead as the Russian Far East regions. (Greenpeace)In addition to the environmental organizations, there are human rights organizations like Indem foundation whic h have been committed towards promoting state in Russia. This is done through collaborative efforts with the civil societies, public officials as well as government organizations. Major issues addressed by Indem leave in anti corruption, issues of international cooperation, reforms in the government and the political arena as well as justice assistance. This NGO tries to ensure that people greet their rights and follow the right procedures to have them respected. (Indem Foundation, 2005).International institutions like the EU and the World avow have also played a significant role in influencing Russia. The World Bank highlighted the need to ensure diversification of the economy to allow equitable growth while reducing the poverty levels. In an effort to ensure that Russia moved with the modern times where globalization is enhanced the World Bank created a 3 year strategy. The main objective in the strategy adopted would be to ensure sustained growth, improved management especia lly in public led institutions, increased social run as well as increased role of the nation at a global level.Russia was expected to participate in global activities like assisting the less developed countries. (World Bank, 2009). Among the ways in which Russia can diversify her economy is through the promotion of agriculture. This sector is however faced by some challenges like excess use of chemicals, wrong choice of crops as well as extreme or excess farming. Another important effort is forestry which has also faced a lot of problems in the recent past. exploitative foreign companies and criminal organizations have negative effects on the forestry industry.Other challenges accommodate wild fires, pests as well as pollution from the industries. (depository library of congress, 2006). Russia showed her interests in registering with World Trade Organization in 2005, a move that was expected to place her at a competitive edge in as far as her economic growth and development are concerned. However her ill to adhere to the stipulated rules for instance strict adherence to intellectual piazza rights sees her barricade from admission by some great economies for instance the US.(Palmer D, 2009). This has seen different bodies in Russia advocating for a change in how people perceive intellectual property rights. The need to view them as an investment has now become vibrant. Russia is a member of the EU, another international organization and she continues to accrue related gains. thither are certain rules to be followed by all members of the EU community. Russia collaborates with the EU to modernize the economy, on security matters, international relations as well as on regional cooperation. (EC)In an effort to strike a relaxation between the economical, environmental as well as social interests the forest owners will be losers. This is attributed to the fact that they will forego their financial gains as they adhere to the harvesting. The society will gain as a upstanding as the adverse effects of global warming will be reduced in a safer environment. Russia has also gained from the globalization process especially in her trading activities with the larger EU region. The poor and marginalized in Russia who forms more or less 20% of the population have also emerged as winners in the globalization process.(World Bank, 2009). This is attributed to the fact that international organizations like the World Bank have been committed to change their plight. World Bank has been involved in collaborative seek activities to find ways of how more jobs can be created. It also assists in health care provision by offering equipment as well as in preventive approaches to curb diseases. World Bank also shows commitment to boost Russias education, fight against corruption as well as acquire a safe environment. (World Bank, 2009).There are many governmental as well as non governmental organizations that affect Russias exertion in the global environm ent. These organizations may have a direct daze on the Russians for instance those that empower the human capital while others may indirectly affect man for instance those based on natural resources like wildlife and forests. Regardless of the direct or indirect impact these organization lead to the emergence of losers as well as winners in the society. alone in all, the benefits of globalization are enormous and ought to be embraced as no country is self sufficient.References Doug Palmer. 2009. Russias WTO bid still faces big U. S. obstacles. Reuters. Retrieved on 9th April 2009 from http//www. canada. com/ news program/world/Russia+still+faces+obstacles/1453371/story. html EC. The European Union and Russia. Retrieved on 9th April 2009 from http//ec. europa. eu/external_relations/library/publications/russia_brochure07_en. pdf Greenpeace. The Russian Forests. Retrieved on 9th April 2009 from http//archive. greenpeace. org/comms/cbio/russia. html. INDEM Foundation. 2005. Retrieved on 9th April 2009 from http//www.indem. ru/en/index. shtml Library of Congress Federal Research Division. 2006. Country Profile Russia, October 2006. Retrieved on 9th April 2009 from http//lcweb2. loc. gov/frd/cs/profiles/Russia. pdf. WWF 2009. Reducing climate change in Russia through sustainable forestry. Retrieved on 9th April 2009 from http//www. panda. org/who_we_are/wwf_offices/russia/index. cfm? uProjectID=RU0130 Wwf Pskov Model Forest Project. Retrieved on 9th April 2009 from http//www. svo. se/episerver4/dokument/sks/engelska/Swedish_Russian/PMF%20 Brochure_ENG. pdf
In a new-fashioned documentary film Ive seen called, Super-Size Me, it was stated that in the past 20-25 years, corpulency levels in America sop up doubled. Why you may wonder? numerous factors contribute to the fashion we live in our nine today, but the important reason for corpulency levels being so high is the fast fare industry and its effects on everyone it comes in contact with. Anyone who has ever had cast aside sustenance in their life come its addicting features. Seeing it everywhere you go whether you are at a grocery store, fast food restaurant, or on TV doesnt help stop the urges in anyones case.Fast food is cheerful, cheap, and is what the average Ameri coffin nail family would choose to eat. Obesity is an on-going problem in the United States today, and if it cannot be stopped, this problem could potentially be passed down from generation to generation. The reason America has al lowed this to happen is because of the way monastic order portrays how to live and eat in this world, how Americans have adapted in a way where they severely rely on fast food for gismo purposes, and the one-on-ones lack of effort in living a healthy lifestyle. Every woman in America once in their lives has seen or bought a magazine. What do you see on the cover?A skinny, beautiful model or celebrity, and a tagline on how to lose more(prenominal) weight or how to eat healthier in order for you to hear more alike(p) the picture. Everywhere you go decree portrays a certain(p) way woman should notion that is acceptable in this world. I powerfully believe that one of the reasons that corpulency has struck America so negatively is because society has pushed the woman in this country over the edge on how they should look. For many women, compulsive eating and being juicy have sound one way to avoid being marketed or seen as the thoroughgoing(a) womanMy fat ranks screw you to all who want me to be the perfect mom, sweetheart, and maid. Take me for who I am, not for who I am supposed to be (Orbach, pg. 452). This quote comes from the article, Fat is a Feminist Issue, and it heavily relates to wherefore fleshiness is still an ongoing issue in the United States. Susie Orbach strongly explains how fat expresses a rebellion against how women opinion powerless because of all of the pressure to look and even act a certain way. party has even changed the way women should look over and over again throughout the years (pg. 452).This in my opinion puts more pressure on the women because they are constantly ever-changing their image and even their body in order to fit in. This report alone, has a Brobdingnagian impact on why a passel of nation are overweight in the world. Now a days, people want to be what they want and not what society wants. Since society hasnt given woman and everyone else a break on what they expect from them, obesity has increased and a rebellion on body image is its result. If society would stop stressing h ow to look and act, people might want to start to do things for themselves and not for the betterment of society.In my experience, I can honestly say that being a women in society today is difficult. Yes I do eat what I want when I want, but I do watch my body image. Half of the reason is because it makes me aspect better as a soul when I look and eat healthy, but the separate half is because I k nowadays society would qualify me as psyche who would fit in. You could say that society has gotten to me, but I do feel great when I eat healthy and when I look healthy. In my nutrition class, I learned that junk food is very low in satiation value, this means that people turn int feel as full when eating them, which tends to lead to overeating.These cardinal factors relate to why people choose to go to a fast food restaurant. Americans bustt realize the negative effects it has on their mind and body. not only is that a factor, but the taste also plays a huge part overly. A lot of great tasting foods are with child(p) for you, which just happens to be the disappointing truth that many people disregard. alone anyone wants is to find good food that is affordable in this world effective? That is what makes fast food so convenient In the article, Dont Blame the Eater, David Zinczenko makes a good point about fast food.luncheon and dinner for me, was a daily choice between McDonalds, Taco Bell, Kentucky hot up Chicken or Pizza Hut. Then as now, these were the only operational options for an American kid to get an affordable meal (pg. 391-392). Everything he stated is true for the average American family, why wouldnt you stop at a fast food restaurant if you are tight on money and time. When I was a kid, sports was a big part of my lifebut time and money was also tight in my family because my two younger sisters also played sports. We stopped for fast food whenever was convenient for us on and off the road.At the time, it was almost like I was being treated wh en we stopped for fast food. Little did I know the only reason we got fast food was because it was affordable and reliable. Even now to this day, it is hard for me not to stop at a fast food restaurant every once in a while. I dont go as a good deal as I utilise to, but it is still convenient and it always will be. Just like Zinczenko was saying, whether we like it or not, fast food surrounds us and lures us into its traps. We have the choice to escape it or embrace it. The individual has this decision alone.Society plays its parts in luring, but it is ultimately your own decision in the end. In the article, Food as Thought Resisting the Moralization of Eating, Mary Maxfield heavily stresses how it is the individuals ultimate decision on what to eat and how much of it to eat. I could not agree more with her article, even though society does its job in persuading, it is the individual who is left with the decision because it is their body. Maxfield states, . what a person eats rare ly takes primacy over how they eat it.. in essence, we can eat as we always have- which includes eating for emotional and social reasons and still survive or even thrive (pg. 445).What she is saying is that no matter what social interactions accept in someones way, they are the ones who decide what and how much to eat. You moldiness trust yourself, trust your body and meet your own regards (Maxfield, pg. 446). Personally, there are days where I know I need to glow down on the junk food and focus on beverage water and eating foods with nutritional value. That is because I have the motivation and apparent motion to do so. Many Americans do not have this motivation and drive. This is what is change magnitude the obesity levels in America. People do not know what is too much, and do not know when to stop.So in return, they are putt themselves more at risk for the chronic diseases that obesity has to offer. In the end, the individual has the power to decide what is best for them. If everyone started to make healthy life decisions, obesity levels could slowly start to subside, and the world could have a more restored environment. We need to start by educating our children about the smart and healthy life alternatives they can make and continue to educate their parents as well. In turn, we can decrease the many factors that have led our country to where it is today. a fast food driven, obese and lazy society.
Sunday, February 24, 2019
The fantasm of the opera house has undergone subsequent remakes. This Hollywood motion-picture show has undergone legion(predicate) remakes at antithetical historical moments through with(predicate)out the world. In Hollywood and the linked Kingdom, it has spawned more than than ten charter and TV mutations that differ signifi muckletly in selecting the settings for the horror-romance capital of France, New York and London in accounting for the ghosts disfiguration, in characterisation the opera understudy, as intumesce as Christines attitude toward the shadower.However, they all told follow the male vestige- instructor and female opera-student structure so that heterosexual person confide manifested in deuce mens competition for a woman mud the prime move of the plot. My focus in this essay is Andrew Lloyd Webbers mutant of the aforesaid(prenominal) text edition.My emphasis in this text pull up stakes be how the spectre including his portrait and representa tive is represent within the fritter technology available at that time in contradistinction to the manner in which the phantoms image and voice is represented in different versions of the aforementioned text. My working hypothesis is that since the phantom, by comment, exceeds visual delegacy in the silent and the sound versions, his voice, as a singer and a music teacher, emerges a primary site for internal histrionics and signification.To explore the representation and the significance of the phantoms voice, I entrust focus on (1) how the phantom-teacher relates to his student through voice as swell as visage, (2) how the teacher-student descent differ from carry to film from Schumachers film in contradistinction to the other version of the film, (3) and how to read these relationships in allegorical terms, or in relation to their respective material-historical conditions. The last question leads me to map the teacher-student relationship onto the tension between an orig inal film and its remake(s).In the end this physical com daub will demonstrates the manner in which each remake strategizes its position twin a historical moment and a prior film text hence it follows from this that each remake specifically Schumachers remake should not be subsumed into an emit tradition in the corridor of the history. I start with the representation of phantoms voice and its interplay with the shadow. The aural-visual dimension is crucial for our perceiveing of the issue of subaltern film remaking, which is ultimately an issue of top executive circulation and distribution.In the film diegeses, the phantom holds function all over the student and other people for two reasons (1) he eludes audio-visual representation and (2) he assumes the em business leadered teacher position. The 1925 version of The Phantom of the opera revolve around upon the triangular tension between Erik, The Phantom (Lon Chaney) Christine (Mary Philbin), an understudy in the Paris ope ra Ho riding habit whom the phantom has trained and elevated to the diva position and Raoul (Norman Kerry), Christines fiance. As indicated above, the phantom, by definition, exceeds direct visual coding.The problematic of representation is further compounded by the fact that the film, existence silent that beingness the 1925 version, cannot represent the phantoms voice except through the dramatic art orchestras performance. This means that the voice and other diegetic sounds the auditory sense notice do not seem to emit from the screen. This representational dilemma is alleviated through the use of shadow an image that signifies the fusion of absence and presence, thus most remove for the phantom figure.More specifically, this silent film mobilizes venues of representation forward Christine sees the phantom. The showtime is the shadow, proffered exclusively to the audience who, according to Michel Chion, is deaf and cannot hear the phantoms voice (Chion 7). The other, the phantoms angelic voice, is heard only by Christine and other characters. The differentiated knowledge distribution leads to two modes of spectatorship, one being exclusively visual, and the other exclusively aural. In both cases, the phantom is almighty when remaining a continent shadow or a disembodied voice (Chion 19).When lodged in a physical body, a process the index finger is lost. This takes place in The Phantom of the Opera when Christines fascination with the acousmatic phantom turns into dread and disgust once the voice is embodied in a visual image i. e. , the skull head that she has unmasked. Thus, the phantoms deacousmatization depletes his magic power over Christine. Not only does his horrendous visage drive Christine to spawn her represent which whitethorn implicitly mirror a female peachs typical response to a horror film.It as well forces the phantom himself to cover his face. The implication is that to maintain his power, he has to remain invisible. In the s aid(prenominal) manner, for a horror film to remain horrific, it essential not be seen in unobstructed view. As Dennis Giles observes, the more the viewer stares, the more the terror will dissipate to the extent that the image of full horror will be revealed (unveiled) as more constructed, more artificial, more a fantasy, more a fiction than the fiction which prepares and exhibits it.To look the horror in the face for rattling long robs it of its power. (48) By covering his face, the phantom symbolizes the horror films attempt to block the viewers vision. In other words, the power of the phantom, and by extension, of the horror film, consists in deprivation of visual representation. The problematic of representing a phantom in a silent film thus finds gag rule in a paradox, namely, the possibility and effectiveness of representation consists precisely in a lack of direct visual representation.Acousmetre is also crucial for maintaining the teacher student relationship. Once deacou smatized, this relationship comes to an end, which in turn de-legitimizes the phantoms proposal to Christine. After a long sequence of suspense, sound and fury, during which Christine is salvaged from the Opera Houses underground catacomb, while the phantom chased to a dead end, the film sign version of the film closes with a double shot of Christine jubilantly married with her aristocratic fiance.Instead of a witness and the beast story, in which the beast is transform into a handsome nobleman by the beautys kiss, the daemon in this film remains a monster and the opera actress gets punished for her scopic and epistemological drive a monstrous transgression she must redeem by betraying the monster reroutine to humanity defined as white heterosexual normality and succumbing to a domesticating marriage. The containment of the female deviancy is built into the film producers end to reinforce what they perceive as the audiences wish a movie about the love life of Christine Daae (Ma cQueen 40).The film thus ends with a triumph of a bourgeois fantasy premised on the domestication of women, and the demolition of the monster. Joel Schumachers remake of the original Phantom of the Opera, did not come as a surprise, given the frequent practice of borrowing and adapting at the time. Schumachers version retains the powerful phantom figure whose self-de-acousmatization again successfully captivates the student, Christine. Nevertheless, it also displays far more intense interactions between the phantom-teacher and the singer-student.Briefly speaking, their relationship goes through four successive steps ventriloquism, reverse ventriloquism or exuberant mimesis, performative reiteration, and finally, the Benjaminian afterlife which delineate Christines gradual usurpation of the phantoms power while also contributing to the dialectical image provided by the phantom-teacher and singer-student relationship. The phantom begins with ventriloquizing Christines in the latters reenactment of the formers masterpiece, now titled Romeo and Juliet, replacing Hot Blood in numbers at Midnight.During the performance, Christine falters at a tenor score, but is undetected by the theatre audience, thanks to the phantoms bet onstage dubbing, visually represented through cuta slip expressive style. The camera first holds on Christines bending over the dead Juliet then closes up on his slightly opened sassing and bewilderment, and subsequently following Christines puzzled look, cuts to the cloaked phantom in profile, hidden hobo a window curtain in the backstage, emotionally singing out the tenor notes.Cutting from the front stage to the back stage area also echoes. In the aforementioned scene, it is key to note that the moment of ventriloquism gradually gives way to Christines agency. Indeed, Christines centrality in the film is evidenced in the predominance of the perspective shots that mediate the off-screen audiences knowledge and sensorial experiences. This viewing structure melodic phrases sharply with The Phantom of the Operas 1925 version.Whereas Christine deacousmatizes the phantom, the audience actually sees the disfigure face before she does. Similarly, Christines knowledge regarding the phantom is one step behind that of the audience who hear the phantoms midnight singing and see an enlarged shadow pestle on the wall at the opening of the film after the initial portrayal of the opera houses condition after the fire. The contrast between the two aforementioned versions of The Phantom of the Opera suggests two different ways of constructing history.One is to hide away the by embodied by the phantom that has transformed beyond recognition so as to reproduce its old, familiar image in a present medium, or the student. The other is to acknowledge what the past has become, in order to re-suture it into the present without reducing the present into a mere mirror image of the past. Thus, Christines agency and the Phantoms revival become interdependent. The teacher-student hierarchy, as argued previously, is analogous with the hierarchy between the master and the slave.Furthermore, it can also be mapped onto the tension-ridden relationship between a film and its remake(s). These interconnected, repeat relationships allow us to situate the cultural achievement of a film in a dynamic socio-political field (Gilloch 17). Following Gerard Genettes definition of hypertextuality, which designates that a hypertext both overlays and evokes an anterior text, or hypotext (Genette 5), I argue that a remake occupies the student position, and that its very existence testifies to and evokes its teacher or predecessor. As a form of cinematic doubling, how the student film situates itself vis-a-vis the teacher and its own historical moment determines possibilities of remaking (Smith 56).The major divergences between the two versions of The Phantom of the Opera mentioned above suggest two diametrically adversary agendas. Wh ereas the former prioritizes domesticating and suturing women into white-oriented heterosexuality, the latter historicizes and politicizes the hetero-erotic relationship between the teacher and student. on that point are several ways in which one whitethorn understand the aforementioned divergence.It is important to note that the text adapted by Schumacher for the social structure of his version of the aforementioned film is in itself a divergence from the original. In parity to Lon Channeys version of the aforementioned film which is an adaptation itself, Schumachers version discarded most of the horror version aspects which have been associated with the film as well as the original text by Leroux. Examples of these are unmingled if one considers Schumachers choice for the line drawing of the phantom himself as a disfigured individual as opposed to a skull hiding behind a mask.In a way there are several ways in which such a depiction the change of depiction may be understood. Initially, one may state that such a shift stems as a result of the shift from the operatic version of the film as opposed to the Beauty and the Beast theme associated with the film. Second, in line with the initial claim of this paper, one may understand the shift in terms of the phantoms depiction as a means of mirroring the historical conditions of the films production.The process of mirroring the initial work as a means of masking the teacher-student relationship in relation to the silent film version and Schumachers version may be understood as a means of employing the manner in which the student has transcended the master to the extent that such a transcendence enabled the initial freedom from the heterosexual archetypal relationships which enables the submission of the female to the norm that being the norm of female submission towards the male.It may indeed be argued that Schumachers version also enabled such a submission since Christine chose Raoul over the phantom. It is important to note, however, that such a choice may be understood differently in relation to the original silent film adaptation of the aforementioned text. Note for example the depiction as well as the characterization of the phantom in the initial version of the film. As was noted at the onset of the paper, the depiction of the phantom in the initial version silent film version presented a direful figure i. e. a skull for a face.Such a presentation may be understood, in such a way, that the phantom is presented as the depiction of the deviance resulting from the inability to adhere to the norm. Deviance from the norm, in this sense, may be seen and in fact understood as a horrible act itself. Schumachers version with its depiction of the phantom as figure with a face a handsome one in fact despite its minor deformities may be seen as mirroring the manner in which deviance from the norm that of the shackle to the heterosexual and in a sense highly patriarchal relationship is mor e acceptable within the current context of the films production (McQueen .Schumachers version begins with a reel from the 1919 occurrence at the Opera Populaire wherein the old Raoul is depicted as buying knickknacks that serve as the monitoring device of the occurrences that led to the aforementioned operas demise. What follow this scene is a reconstruction of the Opera Populaire resulting from the flashback of memories to those who where in it during 1819 thereby providing the spectator with the truth behind the masked lives of those who lived within the opera at that time.What is interesting to note in Schumachers version in relation to the reconfiguration or rather redepiction of the phantom is the manner in which one is now given a new manner of savvy the means in which Christine gains her agency. In fact, agency in Schumachers version of the film is depicted as a manner of choice and not as mere adherence to a prescribed norm in comparison to the original adaption of Webber s text.Dramatically, the story hinges on a series of conflicts which continually redefine Christines position in relation to her surroundings as well as to the individuals around her. Webbers version as adapted by Schumacher depicted this process through a series of musical themes, motifs, and textures which portray the festering of characters, attitudes, and emotions. Note that the materials in each of the musical themes and motifs are rarely special except through instances of fragmentation.Although fragmentation occurs, it is interesting to note that when considered together, these musical themes literally play out the drama involved within the play (Snelson 110). In summary, in this paper I argued that the teacher text does not obviously crumble when the student text arises in resistance, but rather experiences a revival. This is because the remake cannot fulfil itself without simultaneously evoking not imitating the afterlife crystallized in its textual predecessor (Mignolo 112).A film remake re-presents its hypotext not by turning itself into a submissive double, which simply reifies the hypotext, but rather by revalorizing the uncomparable historical position of the hypotext, paradoxically achieved by the remakes sift on its own distinction. In this sense, the various adaptations of Webbers The Phantom of the Opera may be understood in such a way that both versions that stand in a teacher-student relationship present a repugn of the archetypal heterosexual relationships which stand as the pervading theme of the various versions of Webbers The Phantom of the Opera.