Monday, September 30, 2019

Japanese History Essay

The Taisho era, which occurred from 1912 to 1926, is part of Japan’s history. This era was regarded as the period of great righteousness. Emperor Taisho reigned during this time. This time was also considered as democratic compared to other eras after it which were characterized as chaotic and military- oriented. During the Taisho Period the new emperor’s health weakened. This prompted the shift of authority from the old oligarchic, which was ruled by â€Å"elder statesmen†, to the Diet, which was composed of democratic parties. This is why during this era, liberal movement which is knowned as the â€Å"Taisho Democracy† evolved in Japan. After the death of the Meiji Emperor, the Crown Prince Yoshihito took the thrown. This marks the beginning of the Taisho Period. The period begun with political crisis, this interfered with other political negotiations. Misunderstandings brought down the Seiyukai Party in the cabinet. The public was angry and demands to terminate the genro politics or the old oligarchic system. They were supported by another party, the Saionjai. New party, the Rikken Doshikai won against the Seiyukai Party in the House. After World War I, Japan experienced unparalleled prosperity. Japan participated in the peace treaty of Versailles during 1919. They were also part of the â€Å"Big Five† which was a new order recognized internationally. Members of â€Å"Big Five† are countries which have great military and industrial supremacy around the globe. Tokyo, Japan’s capital city received a permanent seat in the League of the Nations Council. Germany’s pacific colonies were also transferred to Japan as Germany loses its rights in Shandong. Truly Japan evolved as an international player in international politics after the war. In September 29, 1918, Hara â€Å"Japanese History† â€Å"page# 2† Takashi, which is from the Saionji Party, was the first ever commoner to become the Prime Minister. The Emperor in Japan will only be the head of the state and not of the government. Different economic and national crises came to him. The public were enchanted with increasing national debts and election laws. The public was disappointed – students, professors, labor movements, including journalists. They were inspired by different schools of thoughts whether communist, socialist or democratic. They conducted massive public demonstrations. After the elections the Seiyukai Party regained the majority. Both communist and socialist parties flourished. This probably made this era more democratic for the public can freely say what they want to the government without fear of military interventions. After sometime, parliamentary system was established. Hara was later on assassinated. After sometime, the Peace Preservation Law was passed. This prohibits any chage in the structure of politics. The disagreements in the Diet results to the introduction of Rikken Minseito – a newly formed coalition of the Seiyu Honto (Seiyukai) and the Kenseikai. This party is committed to promote world peace, democracy and the parliamentary system of government. End of the Era In 1926, Emperor Taisho died and Crown Prince Hirohito assumes the thrown. This ends the Taisho Period. The democratic system of government continued to flourish I Japan during 1920’s. But the next decade, military forces become dominant and the parliamentary system of government was not able to withstand it along with both fiscal and political crises. â€Å"Japanese History† â€Å"page# 3† World War II The Second World War occurred during 1939 to 1945. It is a war between the Allies and the Axis. The Allies was composed mainly by China, France, United Kingdom, Soviet Union and United States. On the other hand, Japan, Italy and Germany were the member of the Axis. After Japan prosper in the postwar and gain political power internationally, Western leaders assumed that Japan is capable of conquering and unite Asia through Emperor Hirohito. In 1937, Japan invaded China with the goal to expand its territory and use its resources. Japanese also invaded the French Indochina. After these invasions the Netherlands, United States, United Kingdom, and Australia, who has stakes in Japan’s colonies, move to prohibit the export of Japan to be shipped to other places. The Western countries ask China for loans in order to have secret military covers. With pressure against it, Japan has no choice but to free its colonies or to declare war to conquer territories. Japan opted to start a war in the Pacific and launch attacks on Malaya, Philippines, Thailand, Hong Kong and Hawaii. China has been under Japan for six years. Pearl Harbor Attack The Japanese military devised an attack in the Hawaii, specifically in Pearl Harbor. The attack was the initial phase of the Japanese in their war against US. The US embargo Japan because it is invading China. The embargo weakened Japan’s Military and economy. Japan wanted the embargo to be lifted by threatening the US for they know that the US does not have enough resources to launch a war. Pearl Harbor is the United States’ naval base and the location of the US’s Pacific Fleet. Japanese wanted to cripple US’s naval operations and attacked Pearl Harbor. The Japanese believed that destroying the US naval base would stop â€Å"Japanese History† â€Å"page# 4† US from fighting into war. The US military forces decoded Japanese code about the attack but it was too late. It was eight in the morning when Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor. The attack left more than 3500 American dead. Eighteen ships were badly damaged including eight battleships of the Pacific Fleet. Almost 350 aircrafts were destroyed and more than a thousand people died when the USS Arizona Battleship sunk. On December 8, 1941, the US launched war against Japan. The US dropped the first atomic bomb on Hiroshima, then on Nagasaki. Later on, Japan Surrendered. References: Erickson, J. , and Dilks, D. (1994). Barbarossa: The Axis and the Allies. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. Glantz, David M. (1991). From the Don to the Dnepr: Soviet Offensive Operations, December 1942 – August 1943. London: Cass. Haslam, J. (1992). The Soviet Union and the Threat from the East, 1933 – 41: Moscow, Tokyo, and the Prelude to the Pacific War. London: Macmillan. Harrison, M. ed. (1998). The Economics of World War II: Six Great Powers in International Comparison. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Promotional mix Essay

Element of the promotional mix for innocent smoothies may include this such as: Advertising is used to communicate with the public about their products and services, this can be expensive and businesses must ensure that they spend their advertising budget carefully methods include: moving image, print, ambient such as advertising on buses, digital and audio. Sales promotion is used to encourage customers to purchase your products or for distribution channels to stock your goods . methods are: price promotion (discounts), coupons, competitions, money refunds, loyalty incentives. Personal selling is when a representative of the company interacts directly with a potential customer using skills called closing a sale. Methods are: face to face, telephone, email, and video or web conferencing. Public relations are activities a business carries out to place information in the media without paying for it directly activities might include: exhibitions, sponsorship and press relations Direct marketing is when a business communicates directly with a customer, establishing an individual relationship between the business and the customer, methods are: direct mail, mail order catalogue, magazines and telemarketing. Advertising is used by innocent most effectively than other methods of the promotional mix, methods of advertising they use is they have links with popular children’s websites such as ‘club penguin’ , Innocent also put adverts on the TV. Another method of advertising Innocent use is that they sell magnets along with their smoothies this is effective as it appeals to their target audience. Innocent use advertising most effectively out of the promotional mix as they appeal to their target audience. Innocent use advertising as they are a new company who need recognition so their TV adverts are memorable and funny and they show their personality this links to matching their target audience well with how they advertise. Innocent use sales promotion effectively as they have used promotions such as the free magnets ad club penguin deals, as if they are linked with things such as club penguin people who use club penguin will be more likely to buy their pouts as I benefits them and linking with a big business like Disney which runs club penguin means that it helps appeal to more of their target audience, while giving them a better image and giving them a funnier personality. The innocent website ad Facebook page work effectively with their sales promotion as it uses fun ad games to promote their products while appealing to their audience at the same time. Innocent also use other methods of the promotional mix such as public relations. Innocent use this to get more sales for example inviting the press to a release of a new product so that they report about it and notify the public this will then help increase their audience ad gain more customers. The press an affect the sales a business makes as if they give a bad review and the company gets bad press they will lose customers instead of gaining them. This is effective because customers can get an unbiased opinion of the products, however it is a risky element of the promotional mix as the product/ company might get a bad review and loose customers but if the public like the product then it will gain sales. Elements of the promotional mix that innocent do not use: Things such as direct marketing and personal selling are not used as effectively by innocent because they sell straight to the store such as Tesco or a wholesaler because it keeps their products staying fresher, they will sell more as they will become more reliable as they are always in the shops unlike Avon which you have to wait weeks until you get your product and chose your products and thy well have a wider customer base, this is why they use advertising so effectively as It continues to get their items bought from the wholesaler. An example of personal selling is a car salesperson persuading you to buy a car, innocent do not use this as it would not be worth it, as they would have to pay for a person to sell the products and they would have to sell a lot before they make a large profit. A person would also have to walk around all day with the produce in the heat which can affect the produce. Innocent don’t use direct marketing as they sell their goods to big supermarkets and they don’t have to sell to the customers so it’s up to the supermarket to tell the customer about the products and deals etc. The promotional mix is used well by innocent as their adverts help get them customers and raise awareness of their brand, and appeal to their target audience. Innocent don’t use direct marketing or persona selling as they don’t sell to the customers personally they sell it to supermarkets instead or the wholesaler. Once they have sold their products to the wholesaler or  supermarkets they no longer will have to sell their produce however they do have to still advertise as they need the customers to want to buy their products from the supermarkets etc. so then the supermarket will continue to stock their brand. They use the distribution channels the way they do to make sure their products stay fresh for the customer and they are kept in good condition and by selling to supermarkets before the customer it will help show their brand to a wider audience and help increase awareness of their brand. The promotional mix used by innocent is appropriate because it has worked and their business is expanding and getting larger, they also have a reliable customer base in England which will help them if they decide to sell in America. This is because they have advertised their business a lot and because of their uses of advertising this means they have a wider audience which ranges from children to adults and any gender.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Andrew Blake Essay Example For Students

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Friday, September 27, 2019

American Constitution Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4250 words

American Constitution - Essay Example It would be erroneous, however, to describe the frame of government, signed by Washington and his fellow-delegates at Philadelphia, as their invention. It is not so much a creation of political theorists as a codification by practical statesmen of doctrines which experience showed had worked well, or were needed for the well-working of government in their country. Moreover, it did not fully satisfy any of its framers, and the discussion connected with its adoption disclosed a strong popular feeling that it ought to be supplemented by a formal bill of rights. Accordingly, various amendments were prepared and ten of these were ratified within two years after the original Constitution went into effect. All of these were suggested by political experience during the revolutionary and colonial periods, while some trace their origin back through English history to Magna Charta. T is clear that the Convention which drafted our Constitution did not originate with political agitators whose heads were filled with new schemes of government. It resulted from the popular conviction that the existing federal system was a failure, a conviction which was voiced by Patrick Henry 1 and other champions of state sovereignty, as well as by those who "thought continentally." How slowly this conviction matured is shown in the stages by which public opinion advanced towards the goal of the Convention. (Taylor 1998 67) The Background of the Constitutional Convention As early as 1643 the colonies of Massachusetts, New Plymouth, Connecticut, and New Haven drew up "Articles of Confederation of the United Colonies of New England," driven thereto by the dangers which threatened them from the hostile Indians, and from the Dutch at New Amsterdam and Fort Orange ( New York and Albany). The purpose of this confederation was principally that of mutual defence, and matters of internal affairs were expressly left to the several colonies, but nevertheless the commissioners were directed to "endeavoured to frame and establish agreements and orders in general cases of a civil nature wherein all the plant cons are interested for preserving peace among themselves, and preventing as much as may bee all occasions of war or difference with others." (Tucker, 1997 74) Provision was also made for the return by each colony to the authorities of the others of runaway servants and escaped criminals. Control of the affairs of the confederation was put into the hands of eight commissioners, two from each colony, and in most matters action could be taken by the concurrence of six commissioners. 2 The confederation functioned actively until the conquest of New Netherlands in 1664, and there were occasional meetings of the commissioners for twenty years more, when the organization finally fell apart. In 1684 representatives of Massachusetts, New York, Maryland, and Virginia met at Albany to provide for measures of defence against the Five Nations, and ten years later representatives from Massachusetts, New York, Connecticut, and New Jersey met at the same place to frame a treaty with the same Indian tribes. While in 1721 there was a gathering of New England governors

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Knolege creation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Knolege creation - Essay Example Modern day business research has become restricted to what Tranfield and Starkey refer to as ‘academic fundamentalism’ ( 1998, page 350) . The research concentrates on the theoretical and has little on no practical value for business, but is published purely for selfish reasons, as a means of career enhancement. Their findings are ignored by real business practitioners and read instead the works of management gurus such as Jack and Suzy Welch’s ‘Winning: The Ultimate Business How-to Book’ ( 2005) in order to discover how best to manage their companies. The usual image of a researcher is someone in a flapping white coat, standing in a laboratory surrounded by flasks, retorts and bottles trying to find a new solution to a medical or chemical problem. It is difficult to imagine what a ‘business school researcher’ must look like. It seems to me that the most advantageous future of business schools would be an amalgam of the best of academics and or practise, as described by Starkey and Tempest (2008, pp. ... There is, as always, a need for people trained in the basics of finance , in accounting , human resources and so on, and some people will always stay at these levels. . Managers and, even more so, business leaders require knowledge of these fundamentals of good business, but other things are needed too, such as psychology or philosophy. In mid-level business schools such studies can be provided, and be financed by a variety of sources – government grants, student fees as well as obtaining funds from business backers. If actually receiving funds from businesses their research is more likely to the real needs of business. The economy is going through difficulties worldwide, and this includes the economies of education. All around the globe, if not now, very soon, government funding will be reduced or cut completely. How will the business schools survive? A few perhaps could concentrate their resources and limit themselves to niche aspects of business studies. Failure to do this might result in them becoming merely trade schools. Other schools could turn their resources to promoting environmentally sustainable and profitable businesses, and yet more could set their sights on international co-operation and management. The remainder could specialize upon socially responsible business management in societies that are nevertheless capitalistic. The non-monetary connections between the academic world and that of business could be increased if there were individuals prepared to move more often, an dif this were made easier – from business to academia, from academia to government, from politics to academia. This would result in a combination of academic research and better work place practise.

Entamoeba histolytica Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Entamoeba histolytica - Essay Example The Entamoeba histolytica is the protozoan responsible for a disease called amoebiasis1. It mainly occurs in the large intestines and causes inflammation as its name suggests. The number of infections worldwide as a result of the parasite can be approximated at 35-50 million people, majority of whom are in developing countries where there is a problem of poor sanitation2. Entamoeba histolytica is a pathogenic parasite that occurs within the intestines and is the sole causative agent of amoebiasis, lack of proper hygiene can be ascribed as be one of the foremost causes of infection by the pathogen. The Entamoeba histolytica is an anaerobic protozoan that causes an infection in the digestive system of mainly humans and other primates2. It is estimated that the parasite has infected approximately 50 million people in the world over and it has had a major role in the morbidity and mortality especially in the developing countries. In addition, animals close to the home such as dogs and cats may also be infected regularly but are not believed to contribute to the transmission of the pathogen3. However, though there are numerous species of protozoa in the genus Entamoeba, not all of them are disease causing organisms. The Entamoeba histolytica is known to cause what is commonly referred to as amebiasis in humans which can either cause internal infections in the intestines or external ones2, 3. Even though some members of the Entamoeba genus are not associated with disease, they are important since they often may be confused with Entamoeba histolytica in diagnostics. Though it has a rather well distribution of incidence worldwide, there is higher incidence of amebiasis in developing countries. Medically speaking, in order for one to get infected by the protozoa, they ought to have ingested mature cysts that may be present in

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Crises and conflicts in the middle east Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Crises and conflicts in the middle east - Essay Example The survival of Saddam Hussein, who was seen as a challenge for the hegemony of the United States of America in the Persian Gulf, directly counterposed as a threat to American and regional security. To finish the unfinished task of 1991, the United States of America‘s invasion of Iraq began on March 20, 2003. America’s Consolidation of New World Order in Iraq The War on Iraq had nothing to do with America’s professed objectives of human rights protection and removal of a dangerous dictator from power. On the other hand, America’s strategic interests in an emerging new world order and the rise of unilateralism and unipolarity after the collapse of Soviet Union had contributed much to bringing the US into the gulf war. Two American wars against Iraq were very different in nature, both in objectives and outcomes. The objective of 1991 war was to overturn the notorious act of aggression and restore normalcy in the region, wherein the United Nations preserves it s hegemony. The first Gulf War, which was called as Operation Desert Storm, had the sanction of United Nations Organization and a grand global coalition forces fought it. It was seen as a legitimate war fought for Kuwait’s liberation. The Operation Desert Storm restored status quo in the region. In contrast, the second Iraq war was a preventive war. It was fought for preventing Saddam Hussein from acquiring nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction. George W. Bush administration was of the view that if Saddam Hussein gets nuclear weapons, he could not be deterred from aggressive actions in the region. Even though old allies of the United States of America and United Nations Organisation opposed it, the United States of America attacked Iraq in 2003. The first said priority of second Iraq war was to oust Saddam Hussein and take away weapons of mass destruction from Iraq. It was a pre-emptive war not only to Iraq but also to demonstrate to other so-called rouge stat es, who were trying to seek weapons of mass destructions against the will of the United States of America, the consequences of mending with American strategic interests in the new world order. Neoconservatives in the United States of the America also provided intellectual support for the war and engaged in fierce ideological battles to change the American opinion in favour of war. They were professing to build a model democracy in Iraq as the presence of a democratic Iraq in the Middle East would have undermined the influence of the other dictatorships in the Arab world and ensured more security for Israel, the staunch American ally. Peter W. Galbraith has correctly summarized real motives behind the second Iraq war. Galbraith considers the Iraq War â€Å"was intended to transform Iraq from brutal dictatorship into the Arab world's first real democracy. President Bush fully expected a democratic Iraq would be both a role model for other Middle Eastern countries and a subversive for ce against the region's authoritarian rulers. Envisioning a replay of the 1989 Eastern European revolutions, where elections in Poland set in motion a process that swept away the Berlin Wall and the Soviet Union, the Iraq War's neoconservative architects imagined the quick collapse of Syria's Baathist regime, the growing strength of Prodemocracy forces in Iran, and ultimately the replacement of pro-American autocrats in Saudi Arabia and Egypt with pro-American democrats†

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Organisational Analysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words - 4

Organisational Analysis - Essay Example In reality, when Scottie determines to have his quintessentially imagined woman, he tried to mould another woman Judy Barton, starred by Kim Novak by changing her appearances in accordance with his imaginary woman â€Å"Madeleine†. During his effort of altering appearances of Judy, Scottie barely thinks about the clay he is modelling and starts the unique story of Hitchcock’s works of arts (Ebert, 2014). The main purpose of this essay is to highlight the moral derives from the story of â€Å"Vertigo† and critically define the role of structure and culture, which have major influence on organisations and/or processes of organising that are represented in some way. In order to obtain the key purpose of the study, the discussion critically reviews the story and thematic representation of â€Å"Vertigo† and representation of the aesthetic view of the film in the context of organisational processes. The discussion of the essay also focuses on critical evaluation by emphasising on the moral of the film and how it can relate with the current organisational structure and culture. Retired police detective Scottie was hired by Gavin Elster to follow his wife Madeleine, regarding her outlandish behaviour. Scottie was appointed in this role to develop effective behavioural aspects of Madeleine but he obsessively falls in love with her. However, she starts believing that she is the recreation of a particular woman who expired many years ago and therefore Gavin Elster is concerned regarding Madeleine’s sanity (Adas, 2006). During the time of Scottie’s affection on Madeleine, they visit an old mission church where Madeleine commits suicide by jumping from the top steeple of the church. The incident of Madeleine’s death faults Scottie not for stopping her from the top of the steeples. After several months of that incident, Scottie

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Computer Sciences and Information Technology Research Paper

Computer Sciences and Information Technology - Research Paper Example Computer science focuses on creating new concepts around the implementation and design of computing systems. Computer science incorporates mathematical concepts of computation as well as information. Further, Clark French (1) mentioned science can be described as the systematic study of the feasibility, expression, structure, and mechanization of the methodical procedures, also known as algorithms. These serve as the foundations for the gathering, processing, representation, communication, storage, and access to relevant data, irrespective of such gathered data is encoded in bytes or bits within the computer’s memories or just transcribed in the proteins and genes structure of the Human cellular structure. The main goal of computer science is to determine the best data processing systems computers can be efficiently and effectively automated and set into motion. Clark French (44) mentions computer science creates programs that improve the computer users’ output. With th e use of accounting software, the accountant’s prior tedious pencil and paper job is reduced by simply encoding the daily transactions. The accounting software will automatically perform all the other steps in the accounting cycle. The accounting software presents a balance sheet, income statement, statement of cash flows as well as breakdowns of receivables, breakdowns of payable amounts, and other accounting information, with just the click of a mouse. The picture development shop can use computer software such as Adobe Photoshop to enhance the output of the camera pictures. The researcher can use the Adobe reader to read pdf files uploaded on the internet. Computer science focuses on how the computer works. The focus includes determining which computer programs will work and which computer programs should be discarded. The computer scientists study which algorithms will produce an end product that is logical, realistic, and saves the computer usage time and money. The comp uter scientists implement the best algorithms that will offer a true as well as an efficient answer to a concrete or real-life problem. The computer scientists create computer program languages such as FoxPro, database III, word, and excel, photoshop, adobe reader, to ensure the specification as well as expression of the established algorithms (Toledo 47). The computer scientists design, build, as well as evaluate current and future computer operating software that can both effectively and efficiently perform prescribed program specifications. The computer scientists implement the preferred algorithm structures to significant software application domains. Michael Huth (259) insists the computer science student creates programs that will lessen the professional’s job. The medical doctor can trust the encoded computer report of the medical transcriptionist. The architect can use AutoCAD architect software to draw the minute details of a house or building. The car driver can use the computer system of the car to determine whether step on the gas or step on the brakes. Michael Huth (213) Computer scientists enter rewarding careers in many fields. One of the fields is software engineering. Another field of specialization is system administration. Another influential field is system management. A favorite field is a research and development to help the government in its drive to improve the lives of the constituents. Some of the computer scientists work in other related areas.  

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Marketing Management of Ocean Park Essay Example for Free

Marketing Management of Ocean Park Essay Brief Description of Ocean Park Hong Kong Ocean Park Hong Kong is one of the most popular theme parks in the world. It was officially opened on January 10th 1977 by the governor of Hong Kong and was funded by the Hong Kong Jockey Club on July 1st 1987, with a Government-appointed Board. It constitutes of marine mammal, oceanarium, animal and amusement as a theme park, located in Wong Chuk Hang and Nam Long Shan in the Southern District of Hong Kong. Reason for Choosing Ocean Park Hong Kong Ocean Park Hong Kong ruled the local amusement park landscape alone. In 2005, Hong Kong Disneyland had arrived and busted out the Park from its near 30-year comfort zone. However, Ocean Park has secured the prestigious 2012 Applause Award, which was the first in Asia to be rewarded. The reason for choosing Ocean Park Hong Kong is thus to study how effectively the marketing strategies are used in the Park against its main competitor, Hong Kong Disneyland. SWOT Analysis A Strength of Ocean Park Hong Kong is the numerous attractions with different levels of amusements ranging from roller coasters to aquariums. Another one is the five major annual events throughout the year: a varying Animal in High Definition Month, the Ocean Park Summer Splash, the Halloween Bash, Christmas and Chinese New Year celebrations. Yet, the most obvious weakness is the several incidents happened in the past five years. Panda attacking a feeder, dying of Chinese sturgeons and sudden pause of attractions – all these had surprised the public’s confidence to the park. In terms of opportunity, there is a proposed MTR station on the east of South Island Line for Ocean. Park Hong Kong. The station would help attract more customers for the Park because it will be easier and more convenient to visit. The major threat is from the future development plan of Hong Kong Disneyland, which is expected to build more themed areas, rides and hotels in the coming decade to match the increasing needs. There will be keen competition between Ocean Park Hong Kong and Disneyland after such an expansion. Marketing Objectives Since Ocean Park Hong Kong aims to become a leader among the theme park industry, its marketing objective is to strive for a place in the top ten of the total number of visitors of the Global Attractions Attendance report by AECOM within two years. Moreover, the Park hopes to increase its profit by at least 20% within two years due to the huge amount of visitors every year. Last, due to the accidents happened in recent years, customers’ satisfaction towards Ocean Park Hong Kong has been damaged. To increase customer retention and satisfaction, the Park should make an effort to ensure there will be no accident in the coming two years Reference list 1 / 2 Rubin, J. (2013). Global attendence attractions report. Retrieved from http://www. aecom. com/deploy edfiles/Internet/Capabilities/Economics/_documents/ThemeMuseumIndex_2013. pdf (2014). Vision and Mission. Retrieved from http://www. oceanpark. com. hk/html/en/footer/corporate-information/vision. html (2014). Annual Report. Retrieved from http://www. oceanpark. com. hk/doc/common/footer/ar/ophk_ar12-13. pdf Ocean Park, Hong Kong. (n.d. ). In Wikipedia. Retrieved October 7, 2014 from http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Ocean_Park_Hong_Kong Pelle, J. (2012). Liseberg The Applause Award. Retrieved October 5, 2014 from http://liseberg. com/en/home/Entertainment/Awards1/ Nip, A. (2014). Annual tourists to Hong Kong could rise to 70 million in three years, commission says,SCMP,17 January from http://www. scmp. com/news/hong-kong/article/1407779/visitor- numbers-can-rise-70m-three-years-commission-says? page=all POWERED BY TCPDF (WWW. TCPDF. ORG).

Friday, September 20, 2019

Black Children in the Child Protection System

Black Children in the Child Protection System INTRODUCTION In recent years, child abuse among black African families has attracted a lot of attention, academically and politically in British social work practice following the tragic death of Victoria Climbie (Laming, 2003) and Adam (Sale, 2005). Many of the research and literature on child abuse since the 1989 Children Act have not extensively discussed the aspect of poverty and child abuse. For many years social work interventions with black African families and children alleged of cases of child abuse have been a controversial topic. The difficulties black African families experience are not limited only to the foreign culture they find themselves in, but other issues may be significant, such as cultural differences in child-rearing, poverty, government policy and the intervention tools and processes. Research evidence suggests that black African children in the UK are over-represented in the child protection system for a variety of reasons such as physical and sexual abuse or neglect. Chand (1999) research on black African families and the child protection system highlights the over-representation of black families (58%) compared to white families (42%) on referrals involving physical injury. Another research shows that referrals involving inadequate supervision of children are disproportionately higher among black African families than white families. Some black African children are involved in the child protection system because their families are unable to provide adequate care for them. Bernard Gupta (2008) study also found that black African children and families are more likely than white families to be drawn into the child protection system on the basis of inherent differences in beliefs and child-rearing practices. The aim of this work is to suggest that black African children and families, due to a number of reasons, are more or less likely to be investigated of child abuse by social workers and other professions. The possible implications for black families being more or less likely to be investigated are either black African children will become over-represented in local authority care under the child protection system or they will not receive the appropriate intervention by social workers under the child welfare system and make children to be subjected to further abuse or neglect by their parents (Chand, 1999). According to Chand (1999) even when abuse among black families is identified, the service provision for the abused children are hampered by lack of resources and this cause delays in assessment and the provision of treatment where specialized services are required. The 1989 Children Act may classify many African children on the child protection register in the UK as children in need as their parents are more likely to live below the poverty line (DoH, 1989). Poverty is linked with reports of abuse and neglect and African families are proportionately more likely to live in poverty than many of the other communities in the UK (Bernard Gupta, 2008). According to Fontes (2006) people who are affected by child abuse are nestled by a variety of social and material domains that are highly interconnected and interactive. Therefore the poverty status of African families living in the UK is an important factor to be considered by social workers working with African families alleged of child abuse. Many African families have negative perception about social workers who work on cases of alleged child abuse, as they employ an assessment and intervention process that is based on euro-centric child protection procedures and as such view black families, their culture and lifestyle as inherently problematic and need correcting (Chand, 1999). This negative perception of social work practice by African families and children living in the UK breed grounds for mistrust and apprehension and make working with such families a major challenge for social workers. Bernard Gupta (2008) argued that black African children and their families are more likely than white families to be investigated of child abuse and therefore are over-represented on the child protection register under the category of poor parenting behaviours. However, black African families are also under-represented in receiving preventative supports such as housing needs, financial benefits that is required to address any family needs and to improve children welfare. Singh (2006) findings show that African families and their entrenched cultural and social perceptions of parenting behaviours are difficult to understand in the context of contemporary social work practice and therefore social workers may be quick to intervene in such families. Bernard Gupta (2008) also found in their research work that the majority of black African families who have migrated to the UK because of war, poverty, and tribal anarchies in their home countries, also have difficulty not only how to adapt to the western culture in which they find themselves but how they may be viewed by social workers involved in child care. Most social work professionals working with black African families do not appreciate the poverty background of such families and would feel justified to make judgements resulting into mistrust and disengagement from both parties. However, according to Bernard Gupta (2008) the Framework for the Assessment of Children in Need and their Families places a requirement on social workers to consider families backgrounds and cultural perspectives when dealing with cases of child abuse. Korbin (2004) argues that social workers face difficulties in employing appropriate intervention in child abuse cases as the processes involved in chi ld abuse assessment may be complex and parental behaviours may not be the same in different cultures and socio-economic settings. In view of this perception, Bernard Gupta (2008) states that a focus on maltreatment or dysfunction within African families can risk stereotyping this ethnic minority as deficient, thus fostering pathological viewpoint of African family relationships'(p 478 ). This raises the question of what type of social work intervention is needed to be used by social workers working with black African families living in economic poverty so that vulnerable children are fully supported and protected, and not just drawing these children into the child protection system. This professional dilemma in social work practice presents a major challenge and therefore, calls for a new perspective in work ideologies and practices, the way information is disseminated on how the child protection system works, training on child-rearing differences in black African culture, social work values and enhancing collaboration with other professions. With a change in social work practice, social workers will develop the skills to distinguish between the styles of parenting inherent in African families which is not necessarily harmful to children and those parenting behaviours that are harmful. This point will be further discussed in chapter two. The dissertation will draw on social work theories, policies and practice, key models and literature search from electronic journals to web search on child abuse, social work intervention and child protection system. The main emphasis of this dissertation looks at the available literature on black African families involved in the child protection system, focusing on specific poverty-related parenting practices that give rise to issues of child abuse. The methodology for this work is mainly qualitative and the literature obtained from both primary and secondary sources. The dissertation examines various issues such as how social work professionals should perceive and manage child abuse among black African families living below the poverty-line, what interventions social workers need to employ that would support these families to provide adequate child-care for their children and the possible reasons why black African children and their families may be over-represented in the child pro tection systems. The first chapter examines the literature on black African children and the child protection system. Chapter two provides a discussion on the increased complexity of social work intervention in child abuse cases involving black African families living in poverty. It also analyse how poverty could complicate parenting behaviours that impact on child-rearing which, tends to draw black African children living in the UK into the child protection arena. Then chapter three draws on legislations and policies regulating social work practices in the UK. It also examines contemporary social work practice in child abuse cases among African families. Chapter four critically analyses the various methods of interventions available to social workers when working with black African families. Finally chapter five discusses the implications of social work intervention among African families living in poverty. CHAPTER ONE BLACK AFRICAN CHILDREN AND CHILD PROTECTION SYSTEMS The prevalence of Black children in the child protection system Many children are drawn into the child protection system for many different reasons. The majority of these children go through distressing and damaging experiences, which may include physical, emotional, sexual abuse and neglect. Some children living with poor families come under the child protection system as result of families parenting behaviours and practices, oppression, discriminations and cultural values. Considering the child protection system and black African families, Bernard Gupta (2006) have critically analysed the evidence on the disproportionate representation of black African families on the child protection register. Brophy et al (2003) study highlights the proportion of minority ethnic families and their children represented on the child protection register involve several allegations about parental behaviours and practices. Chand (1999) states that different child-rearing methods used in different cultures mean that as an outsider, understanding what is the norm a nd what is deviant is problematicand trying to distinguish the risks in one family from the another, social workers may fall back on moral judgements'(p.72). In contemporary social work practice many social workers are faced with difficulty situations when assessing and making decisions on child care issues among African children and their families who are living in poverty. It is paramount in view of available literature to say that when social workers acknowledge and understands these families financial backgrounds and their cultural identity through effective communications, it is possible they will come to terms with some of their parenting behaviours and practices. However, where families go over the boundaries of child-rearing to inflict physical and emotional harm on their children, which is evident in Victoria Climbie inquiry, it should be understood that such families have gone beyond what is acceptable not only within the western culture but in their own culture (Chand, 1999). Therefore, if social workers understand the causes of parental behavioural patterns of African families, they will be well-informed to determine whether a particular parenting behaviours should be considered within the protection process or to provide advice and support for such families under children in need (Chand, 1999). The challenges social work practitioners experience when using the assessment processes as detailed in the Climbie Inquiry (Laming, 2003) is crucial to the safety and protection of black children whose families have immigrated into the UK. Sometimes social workers may be stereotyped as racist and ethnocentric, as they do not acknowledge and address issues of poverty-related parental behaviours of African families in the assessment process of a child abuse case (Chand, 1999). Under the Governments Every Child Matters policy, social workers first priority is to ensure children live with their families if it is best to do so. In addition to this policy, it is the responsibility of the social services or local authorities to create the enabling environment for the provision of preventative services to families so that these families can provide appropriate care for their children. According to the Department for Education and Skills (2006b) statistical data a significant proportion of bl ack African children are on the child protection register. A number of studies tend to support the view that families of these children lives in poverty and struggle to raise their children to the standard set up by government legislation. Therefore it is difficult to say whether social services are meeting the agenda detailed in the Framework for the Assessment of Children in Need and their Families (Department of Health, 2000) which places on social workers the responsibility to consider families backgrounds and cultural values when dealing with child care issues. Thoburn et al.s (2005) review of the nature and outcomes of child welfare services for black children concluded that African children are almost twice as likely to be looked after than the white majority children in the population as a whole, which then suggest, that some of these children will be accommodated under section 20 of the 1989 Children Act, by virtue of being raised by families living in poverty. However, there are a number of contributory factors which could be perceived as important in understanding the involvement of black African families with social work agencies and the resultant over-representation of their children in the child protection system. Child abuse and neglects may be linked to poor parental practices and poverty by families who are supposed to be responsible for looking after these children. Therefore the poverty experienced by many African families and children may be resolved through a more preventative welfare services rather than child protection se rvices. Platt (2006) study on the refocusing initiative on social work practices from the child protection orientation to a child welfare orientation underpins government legislation, policies and procedures and management efforts to redirect social work interventions more towards welfare services. Also through child welfare practices social workers may appreciate the difficulties that families experience and may endeavour to meet children and their family financial and social needs through a range of social and preventative services. The government legislations and policies The most relevant legislation in the UK that aims to protect children from abuse and harm is the Children Act (1989), of which Section 47 expects local authorities to make enquiries into cases where they have reasonable cause to suspect that a child is suffering or likely to suffer significant harm and Section 17 makes provision for a child to be assessed with a view to the provision of services to children in need (Platt, 2006). Therefore there are two definitive objectives of the Children Act (1989), the child protection focus and the child welfare focus. Many black African children referred to social services under the child protection system may not necessarily be suffering from any harm or neglect if the situation is considered in the context of parenting behaviours and practices (Chand, 1999). According to Platt (2006), the Audit Commission recommendation to shift from the popular investigational work use by social workers to a family support services, was a result of many fail ings identified by many other government bodies. This wind of change for social work practice was accepted by the Department of Health, after examining the publication, Child Protection: Messages from Research (Department of Health, 1995). Chand (1999) argues that the child protection system tends to draw too many cases inappropriately onto the child protection register, of which many may be classified as border-line cases, that could have being managed under the children welfare services. Whilst other research findings support the view that the child protection system seems to have achieved as much as could be expected in terms of preventing further abuse of vulnerable children. Hayes and Spratt (2008) argue that such achievement is not in ways most readily understood by those who legislate, set policy and measure performance. Bernard Gupta (2008) highlights in their study that, in situations in which there is a risk of abuse or neglect of African children, as with other minority ethnic children, the literature suggests that fear of difference, combined with racist stereotypes, may both exacerbate defensive practice, leading to avoidance that can leave children unprotected (p486). The Department of Health (1995) emphasises that social work professionals need to rely on various policies and measures since child abuse is not an absolute concept and most family behaviours have to be seen in context before decisions of abuse are made (Chand 1999, p. 70). Although child protection social workers in the UK are trained to follow the official guidance as set out in the Department of Health (1988) Protecting Children: A guide for Social Workers undertaking a Comprehensive Assessment, this guidance in the context of black African children and their families, fall short in addressing their basic needs (Chand, 1999). Against this background, the quality of social work assessment and, hence intervention process used by social workers may stereotype black African families, their parenting behaviours and practice and culture as inherent indicators of child abuse and need correcting (Chand, 1999). The fundamental dilemma facing contemporary social work practice is the manner and extent social workers should engage in social welfare services rather than in investigational procedures and processes, so as to redirect its efforts primarily to the poor and needy in society (Karger Hernandez, 2004). From the 1990s there have been proactive and sustai ned efforts on behalf of the UK government to develop and promote legislation and policies, which challenge the influence of a child protection culture on management and social work practice, which notably are perceived as distorting the balance of service provision to children and families (Spratt Callan, 2004). Pringle (1998) argued that the family support strategies may focus on the generalization of responses compared with child protection procedures that target actual nature of the alleged abuse. Cleaver Walker (2004) argued in their research, that the implementation of this switch from child protection to child welfare services by social work agencies can have negative and difficult impact on the government Framework for the Assessment of Children in Need and their Families. According to Hayes Spratt (2008) the government has seen a remarkable reduction in the number of children drawn into the child protection system, which commends local authorities effort to help achieve performance targets. Spratt Callan (2004) criticized the reductions in number of children on the child protection register, as being achieved largely due to modern governance and measures to promote compliance with performance targets. However, following Baby P report childrens services watchdog, Ofsted, reported t hat a review of 173 serious cases in April 2009, found that social workers and other agencies, failed to act swiftly to put children suffering from physical and neglect abuse onto the child protection register (www.ofstednews.ofsted.gov.uk/article). Ofsted also identified certain poor social work practices such as the failure of social services workers to identify and report signs of abuse, poor recording and communication, and limited knowledge and application of basic policies and procedures (www.ofstednews.ofsted.gov.uk/article).This report has since seen an increase in the number of children drawn into the child protection system. According to Chand (1999), the UK government reiterated that the primary and official duties of local authorities within the context of the 1989 Children Act is to focus more on safeguarding children through the provision of advice and support services under children in need. In Spratt Callan (2004) study the Department of Health estimates four million children living in England are vulnerable to harm or neglect, due to their families living far below the poverty line, yet only 300-400,000 of these children are known to social services at any given time. Thoburn et al (2000) study on families, whose children were at risk of suffering emotional abuse and neglect, shows that 98% of the children brought to the attention of child protection system, their families live in poverty. Parton (1997) argued that due to the correlation between poverty and the need for provision of public services, only the very small number of vulnerable children who are designated as children in need receive s ervices under the welfare service. Spratt Callan (2004) suggest that a more effective way social work can help such vulnerable children, particularly black African children, who may be over-represented on the child protection register, is the government increasing resources to local authorities, increasing the number of social workers and reshaping the social services system. Therefore, with regard to the governments provision of resources, legislation and policies, the model or intervention approach social workers may employ when working with black African families living in extreme poverty, will determine whether a family receives a child protection service or a child welfare service. CHAPTER TWO POVERTY AND BLACK AFRICAN FAMILIES Poverty and Child Protection The area of poverty and child protection with black African families has been the source of controversy in British social work research for many decades. Many researchers find a correlation between economic deprivation such as poverty and social exclusion and parenting behaviour and practice, child-rearing capabilities and skills which are a prerequisite for proper child development anywhere in the world. Moreover, according to Jordan (2001) poverty is correlated with reports of abuse and neglect. For instance, the National Centre for Children in Poverty found in 1990 that the incidence of child abuse and neglect, as well as the severity of the maltreatment reported, is much greater for children from low-income families than for others (Jordan, 2001 p.1). As a large number of Africans in the UK live below the poverty line, it may be reckoned that most black African children on the child protection register live below the poverty line. Brophy et al (2003) argue that many families brought to the attention of the child protection system lives in extreme poverty and may experience social exclusion. Black African children living in the UK may be over-represented in the child protection system for reasons such as physical abuse or neglect; therefore it is understandable to say that there is a correlation between abuse and parenting behaviours and practices. The question is why African families and their children living in poverty, who are alleged of child abuse, are over-represented in the child protection system? Sossou Yogtiba (2008) noted in their study that a child is the most valuable asset of any traditional African family, as children symbolise status, respect and completeness of the nuclear family, if that is the case, then it is ironical to see African families and their children to be over-represented in the child protection system. Many black African families in the UK still lives below the poverty-line though they undertake different types of unskilled or skilled jobs, as they support large families in their countries of origin (Anane-Agyei, 2002). It may be reckon that poverty is linked with other social disadvantages such as poor education, limited employment opportunities, and poor health and may have devastating consequences for childrens development and life chances. Research shows that many African families and their children may have insecure immigration status and their existing financial predicaments only help to complicate their parenting behaviours and practices. Penrose (2002) study shows that African families seeking asylum are often forced to live at level of poverty that is just unacceptable, and this puts financial constraint on them to provide adequate childcare for their children. Unemployment levels are known to be very high among African families, and they are also subject of stigmatization and prejudice by the larger community that are suppose to accept them. According to Bernard Gupta (2008) immigration and asylum status determines income, employment opportunities and access to support services for many African people in the UK and these issues of entitlement to services only complicate their cases. Some African families living in the UK may be without jobs and may not also be entitled to social and economic benefit and therefore may find it difficult to care for their children. Children growing up with parents living in poverty may be deprived of proper childhood development ( Montith Eithne, 2005). African families living in poverty and failing to provide good care for their children may be perceived by social work professionals as failing in their parental responsibilities (Chand, 1999). For this reason, social workers may intervene in such families and often than not they are drawn into the child protection system. Amin Oppenheim (2002) argue that the unfamiliar cultural expectation of black African families living in the UK somehow contribute to the high level of poverty they experience. Research shows that many African families suffer from institutional oppression including housing, employment, education and health which not only means that they are more likely to experience poverty and deprivation, but also more susceptible to social work interventions in child abuse or maltreatment allegations. Corby (1993) noted that it may be expected that black African children are over-represented in child abuse cases because their families are more open to surveillance as they show high levels of poverty that complicate their parenting behaviours (Chand, 1999 p73). In a broader perspective, Pearce Bozalek (2004) emphasise that the child protection system that exist in Britain will be unfamiliar to many African families, especially those more recently arrived, as similar state systems do not exist in most African countries, particularly where socio-economic factors, political instability and violence overshadow intra-familial child maltreatment and effective intervention into child abuse and neglect (Bernard Gupta, 2006 p481). Brophy et al (2003) study supports the above assertion that African families experience discrimination and insecurity in child abuse cases, as the tools for assessing abuse are often euro-centric bias and prejudice the families. Chand (1999) study expresses the awareness that black African families are disadvantaged through oppression in all areas of society and this should not reflect in social work practice. Gibbon et al (2003) findings show that the child protection system was picking up more alleged child abuse cases inappropriately and putting more families and children on the child protection register than children who are subject to social welfare procedures. Therefore the over-representation of African families on the child protection register somehow, undermines the government aim of keeping children with families and reducing the number of children that are drawn onto the child protection register. The Department of Health (1995) document on child protection identified some pertinent shortcomings with the child protection system, as it seems to encourage unnecessary child protection interventions in border-line child abuse cases. Bernard Gupta (2008) in their study of black African children and the child protection system suggest that there are a series of interactions between environmental factors such as poverty, immigration status and social exclusion that affect the life cha nces of many African children and the capacity of their parents to provide adequate care. Dowling (1999) realise that social work practice in the UK focus less on poverty-alleviating strategies but throw more resources behind safeguarding and protecting vulnerable children from abuse or maltreatment. Social workers need to understand the context in which abuse occurs, irrespective of race and culture, to develop an assessment and intervention process that is fairer for black families as they are more likely to suffer racism and oppression. In view of the above argument, it is pertinent that social workers know when to employ preventative measures to support black African families who have financial needs and when to take such families through the child protection system in the quest for safeguarding children. All these factors together create complex needs for many African children living in the UK, and, in many circumstances increase their vulnerabilities which draw them into the child protection arena. Bernard Gupta (2008) argued that only by developing effective relationships with African families can social work professionals can begin to understand their parenting behaviours and practices. Poverty and Child Welfare Services Current literature shows that poverty experience by most black African families living in the UK could be alleviated by social work services that offer a pragmatic welfare services rather than drawing these families and children into the child protection system. Brophy et al (2003) study suggests that immigration and asylum issues, combined with poverty, are likely to be some of the reasons for the increased complexity for social work professionals assessing and intervening child abuse cases involving black African children. The Department of Health challenges social workers with the responsibility to work with Section 17 of the Children Act 1995, so as to provide adequate social support for children in need via the child welfare services (Platt, 2006). However, social work agencies have not fully achieved the government agenda of alleviating poverty experience by many families and children due to inadequate resources at all levels of social work practice. The Department of Health have indicated that most families, struggle to bring up their children in conditions of material and emotional adversity (DoH, 2001). For instance black African families experiencing poverty may fail in their responsibility to provide proper care for their children as they spent almost all their time working to make ends meet. Such children hardly experience family treats such as going on a family holiday trip, having birthday parties and they are deprived of having basic playing toys and games that help children to learn and grow into adulthood. The lack of affordable basic needs for children of poor families complicated with other social adversities may contribute to poor children developing aggressive behaviours, low self-esteem, picking up awkward attitudes, and may to suffer from social deprivation. Fontes (2005) realises that many traditional immigrant families, where black Africans are part of, may use an authoritative style of parenting, demanding tot al obedience and respect from their children. Although these parental practices may not necessarily constitute child abuse, it may clash with the child-rearing norms, and thus seems to bring African children and families to the attention of the child protection system (Fontes, 2005). When social workers start acknowledging borderline child abuse cases and understand the difficulties families living in poverty experience in raising their children, they would be able to strike a good balance between when to employ a child protection intervention and a child welfare intervention (Spratt Callan, 2004). It is evident that children living in poverty may benefit from the child welfare services as stipulated in section 17 of the 1989 Children Act, as it aims at alleviating poverty in families

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Allusions In Invisible Man Essay -- essays research papers

Allusions in Invisible Man Invisible Man, written with ingenuity by Ralph Waldo Ellison, is a masterpiece by itself, but it also intertwines into every page one or more allusions to previously written masterpieces. Whether intentionally or unintentionally, and whether it was Ellison who incorporated the works into his own or others who incorporated his work into their own, it makes for a brilliant piece of literature. Ellison defines the character of the Invisible Man through literary, Biblical, and historical allusions. In the "Prologue," the narrator writes, â€Å"Call me Jack-the-Bear, for I am in hibernation† (6). . Although vague, this reference to Jack indicates all the Jacks in the fairy tales (Jack and the Beanstalk, Jack and Jill, etc.) Jack, the common protagonist, allows the reader to know that Invisible Man is the protagonist right away. The comment that he is in hibernation refers to his constant battle between being the protagonist or the antagonist; whether to act according to his feelings and instincts, or to try to follow the mysterious words of his deceased grandfather. Also, Brother Jack can be seen as a protagonist throughout the book as well. Even earlier in the chapter, a reference to Edgar Allan Poe is made; â€Å"I am an invisible man. No, I am not a spook like those who haunted Edgar Allan Poe...† This allusion, clear and concise, refers to the "spooks" who haunted Edgar Allan Poe and right away defines the narrator's invisibility. He is not a ghost or spirit, but is invisible through his character, actions, and feelings about himself. In addition to these allusions, Dante's Inferno is referred to in the Prologue as well. Invisible Man relates the action of going to his home in the basement of the apartment building to descending into Hell. He comments that his â€Å"hole is warm and full of light... I doubt that there is a brighter spot in all of New York than this hole of mine..† (6.) This â€Å"hole† that the narrator refers to is the basement home that he discovers later in the novel. This is when he also realizes and accepts his invisibility. At this time the Invisible Man is both happy to accept his identity (or lack thereof) and bitter at the realization that he has no identity. This is why he refers to this as a place similar to hell,... ...he will always be black. No matter how much he, or any of his Brothers attempt to liberate themselves, they will never be able to rid themselves of the burden of their brown skin. Another historical allusion occurs on page 389 when Brother Tarp gives a special gift to the Invisible Man. He gives him a link of the chain the locked him down during his years of slavery. This is a shock to the narrator because it forces him to realize how recent slavery occurred. At first, he does not want the object, but after being scolded for having it on his desk by another Brother, he has grown attached to it. both the bank and the link are objects that stayed with the narrator throughout the story. On page 548 he drops his brief case containing his treasured, yet burdensome items, and insists on going back against a sheet of fire to retrieve the brief case. This is another example of how these items have become part of his identity. Allusions are an extremely effective device in literature. They help to reinforce ideas previously thought of by others. In Invisible Man the narrator’s character is successfully defined through the use of allusions throughout the novel Allusions In Invisible Man Essay -- essays research papers Allusions in Invisible Man Invisible Man, written with ingenuity by Ralph Waldo Ellison, is a masterpiece by itself, but it also intertwines into every page one or more allusions to previously written masterpieces. Whether intentionally or unintentionally, and whether it was Ellison who incorporated the works into his own or others who incorporated his work into their own, it makes for a brilliant piece of literature. Ellison defines the character of the Invisible Man through literary, Biblical, and historical allusions. In the "Prologue," the narrator writes, â€Å"Call me Jack-the-Bear, for I am in hibernation† (6). . Although vague, this reference to Jack indicates all the Jacks in the fairy tales (Jack and the Beanstalk, Jack and Jill, etc.) Jack, the common protagonist, allows the reader to know that Invisible Man is the protagonist right away. The comment that he is in hibernation refers to his constant battle between being the protagonist or the antagonist; whether to act according to his feelings and instincts, or to try to follow the mysterious words of his deceased grandfather. Also, Brother Jack can be seen as a protagonist throughout the book as well. Even earlier in the chapter, a reference to Edgar Allan Poe is made; â€Å"I am an invisible man. No, I am not a spook like those who haunted Edgar Allan Poe...† This allusion, clear and concise, refers to the "spooks" who haunted Edgar Allan Poe and right away defines the narrator's invisibility. He is not a ghost or spirit, but is invisible through his character, actions, and feelings about himself. In addition to these allusions, Dante's Inferno is referred to in the Prologue as well. Invisible Man relates the action of going to his home in the basement of the apartment building to descending into Hell. He comments that his â€Å"hole is warm and full of light... I doubt that there is a brighter spot in all of New York than this hole of mine..† (6.) This â€Å"hole† that the narrator refers to is the basement home that he discovers later in the novel. This is when he also realizes and accepts his invisibility. At this time the Invisible Man is both happy to accept his identity (or lack thereof) and bitter at the realization that he has no identity. This is why he refers to this as a place similar to hell,... ...he will always be black. No matter how much he, or any of his Brothers attempt to liberate themselves, they will never be able to rid themselves of the burden of their brown skin. Another historical allusion occurs on page 389 when Brother Tarp gives a special gift to the Invisible Man. He gives him a link of the chain the locked him down during his years of slavery. This is a shock to the narrator because it forces him to realize how recent slavery occurred. At first, he does not want the object, but after being scolded for having it on his desk by another Brother, he has grown attached to it. both the bank and the link are objects that stayed with the narrator throughout the story. On page 548 he drops his brief case containing his treasured, yet burdensome items, and insists on going back against a sheet of fire to retrieve the brief case. This is another example of how these items have become part of his identity. Allusions are an extremely effective device in literature. They help to reinforce ideas previously thought of by others. In Invisible Man the narrator’s character is successfully defined through the use of allusions throughout the novel

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Philosophy Statement Essay -- Teaching Teachers Education Essays

Philosophy Statement I believe that education is the key in developing today’s students into tomorrow’s leaders. Education is the basis on which individuals develop their self-concept and the desire to become more knowledgeable. I want to become an educator because I am interested in helping elementary students become active learners and also to assist with their social skills. I believe I can make a difference to many students as they start their educational foundation. I feel that all teachers should possess the desire to devote their hard work and efforts to their students’ educational success. I view teaching as not only one of the most respected careers, but also as one in which the rewards are great and many opportunities to touch the lives of students are provided. I am a proponent of the educational philosophy of Progressivism. I agree that experience is a very important component of problem solving. I feel that problem solving is a well-desired skill for all children to learn because it will help them throughout their whole lives. I believe that John Dewey’s emphasis on a curriculum that is relevant to real-life is a good approach to teaching. If students can take their knowledge of something learned in class and apply it to any life situation that is a great accomplishment. I think that teachers should strive to adapt lessons that are comparable to incidents in reality because it provides for easier perception of the knowledge being taught. I agree with John Dewey’s theory in that the process of inquiry is an efficient method to use to learn commonsense tasks, or even complicated problems. I strongly believe that the inquisitive, active learning style involved in teach... ...elementary levels to ensure that each student’s becomes literate. I believe that as a teacher I should not overreact at something minor and raise my voice at a student unless they are definitely misbehaving. I believe that it is necessary to intervene in a situation that is inappropriate or harmful. It is mandatory to be in control of the classroom, but it is not right to abuse your power of authority over the students. I am aware that teaching is a career full of challenges and disappointments, but I think that the positive aspects of teaching definitely outweigh the negative factors. I think that making a positive impact on a child’s educational process is one of the best accomplishments that a person could make. Without a firm educational background in the elementary level, there would not be much hope for further future success. Philosophy Statement Essay -- Teaching Teachers Education Essays Philosophy Statement I believe that education is the key in developing today’s students into tomorrow’s leaders. Education is the basis on which individuals develop their self-concept and the desire to become more knowledgeable. I want to become an educator because I am interested in helping elementary students become active learners and also to assist with their social skills. I believe I can make a difference to many students as they start their educational foundation. I feel that all teachers should possess the desire to devote their hard work and efforts to their students’ educational success. I view teaching as not only one of the most respected careers, but also as one in which the rewards are great and many opportunities to touch the lives of students are provided. I am a proponent of the educational philosophy of Progressivism. I agree that experience is a very important component of problem solving. I feel that problem solving is a well-desired skill for all children to learn because it will help them throughout their whole lives. I believe that John Dewey’s emphasis on a curriculum that is relevant to real-life is a good approach to teaching. If students can take their knowledge of something learned in class and apply it to any life situation that is a great accomplishment. I think that teachers should strive to adapt lessons that are comparable to incidents in reality because it provides for easier perception of the knowledge being taught. I agree with John Dewey’s theory in that the process of inquiry is an efficient method to use to learn commonsense tasks, or even complicated problems. I strongly believe that the inquisitive, active learning style involved in teach... ...elementary levels to ensure that each student’s becomes literate. I believe that as a teacher I should not overreact at something minor and raise my voice at a student unless they are definitely misbehaving. I believe that it is necessary to intervene in a situation that is inappropriate or harmful. It is mandatory to be in control of the classroom, but it is not right to abuse your power of authority over the students. I am aware that teaching is a career full of challenges and disappointments, but I think that the positive aspects of teaching definitely outweigh the negative factors. I think that making a positive impact on a child’s educational process is one of the best accomplishments that a person could make. Without a firm educational background in the elementary level, there would not be much hope for further future success.

The Stamp Act Essay -- British History

The Stamp Act   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The passing of the Stamp Act by Parliament in 1765 caused a rush of angry protests by the colonists in British America that perhaps "aroused and unified Americans as no previous political event ever had." It levied a tax on legal documents, almanacs, newspapers, and nearly every other form of paper used in the colonies. Adding to this hardship was the need for the tax to be paid in British sterling, not in colonial paper money. Although this duty had been in effect in England for over half a century and was already in effect in several colonies in the 1750?s, it called into question the authority of Parliament over the overseas colonies that had no representation therein.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  When the news of the passage of this act reached the American shore, the colonists protested vehemently. Nine of the thirteen colonies sent delegates to the Stamp Act Congress, which sought ?to consider of a general and united, dutiful, loyal and humble representation of their condition to His Majesty and the Parliament; and to implore relief.? The resulting resolution caused almost as much resistance in England as the original act had in the colonies. Through studying some of the documents coming out of this period, one can see the very different opinions held by the colonists, supporters of Parliament, and American sympathizers.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The Resolutions of the Stamp Act Congress were completed on October 19, 1765. These resolutions are a strong, logical argument against the Stamp Act, which appears to be very cogent. A major issue in the writing of these was the degree of rebelliousness that should be conveyed in the text. Because of the disagreements about this, the wording of the first resolution is very vague. The Congress began by asserting their allegiance to the crown and affirming their likeness to its other subjects, including the entitlement to certain inherent rights and liberties. It goes on to establish the need for representation in the government and the impossibility of representation for the colonists. It then goes on question the jurisdiction of Parliament in the passage of the Stamp Act in Resolution VII and petition the repeal of it in the conclusion: VII. That the late Act of Parliament, entitled, An Act for granting and applying certain Stamp Duties, and other Duties, in the British colonies and the plantations in America, etc., by impos... ...rn the colonies, taxing them was overreaching its jurisdiction: I am no courtier of America; I stand up for this kingdom. I maintain that the parliament has a right to bind, to restrain America. Our legislative power over the colonies is sovereign and supreme?but there is a plain distinction between taxes levied for the purposes of raising a revenue, and duties imposed for the regulation of trade?[Americans] have been wronged. They have been driven to madness by injustice. Will you punish them for the madness you have occasioned? Here Pitt is sympathizing with British America, comparing its people not only to slaves but also to the insane. He finishes his speech by asking that the Stamp Act be repealed ?absolutely, totally, and immediately? and that ?the reason for the appeal should be assigned, because it was founded on an erroneous principle.?   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  These are not all of the literature in response to the Stamp Act. Many others protested and supported in writing, speeches, and demonstrations. However, these examples do express the emotions that were drawn out during this time and the world of differences in the views of the colonists, Parliament, and American sympathizers.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

The Violence Runner

Throughout the history, there have been leaders of good and evil, moral and immoral, peaceful and violent alike. Sometimes, when the evil takes power and misuses it, the staggering impact they entail in the society can be appalling and outrageous. In Khaled Hosseini’s The Kite Runner, Assef is exemplary of an evil leader who misuses his power and stands in the frontlines of crippling Afghanistan and its people into a pitch-black mist of chaos. First of all, Hosseini places Assef under the perfect setting in which the author bestows Assef the opportunity to develop his power as an antagonist in the novel. In the nineteenth century, Hazaras fails to rise against the Pashtuns in Afghanistan, and subsequently, discrimination against the Hazaras becomes prevalent in the society. In this type of environment, Assef naturally gains superiority over the Hazaras as a Pashtun and forms discriminative views and ethnic hatred towards them. It is even understandable for Assef to claim Adolf Hitler, the infamous dictator who relentlessly exterminated millions of Jews and other ethnic groups, to be a great leader, â€Å"a man with vision. (Hosseini, page 40) This is because to Assef, Hitler is his role model; Assef believes that Hazaras should be exterminated from the face of the earth, as he is determined to ask Daoud Khan, the newly president, â€Å"to rid Afghanistan of all the dirty, Kaseef Hazaras. † (Hosseini, page 40) This way, Assef naturally develops his relentlessness and sadism that he fully makes usage out of. His violent mindset against the Hazaras leads him to later join the Taliban, in which he gains the position to freely kill Hazaras without punishment, and relentlessly ties up Afghanistan in a bundle of Taliban laws. As we can see, Assef uses his superiority over the Hazaras that he gains from the society that he lives in, and manipulates it fully to dominate over the ethnic group. To control and frighten them he would often times use violence as his tool. Assef rules the streets of Wazir Akbar Khan section of Kabul with his notorious savagery and relentless violence. In the streets of the Wazir Akbar Khan, Assef’s â€Å"word is law†, and if the law is broken, then his stainless-steel brass knuckles are used accordingly as a punishment. Hosseini, pag3 38) Here, Hosseini uses stainless-steel brass knuckles as a significant motif throughout the novel, and also a symbol of violence and dominating power. Whenever we see Assef performing violence on somebody, we can observe emergence of his brass knuckles. When Hassan defends Amir against Assef with his slingshot, Assef tells Hassan and Amir, â€Å"this doesn’t end today, believe me. † (Hosseini, page 42) This suggests that Assef is a relentless, merciless and vengeful figure, foreshadowing his later revenge against Hassan and Amir. The brass knuckles appear again towards the end of the novel, when Assef beats Amir miserably with his brass knuckles â€Å"flashing in the afternoon light,† and thus fulfilling his warning and revenge that he had in his childhood. (Hosseini, page 288) These brass knuckles clearly represent physical domination on those who do not have such power; these multiple scenes of the recurring emergence of the brass knuckles suggest that violence is his power, his way to rule. Despite Assef’s unbearable deeds of violence, he holds one power that not everyone has: the power to change one’s life completely. Rape is a significant motif that is used throughout the novel by Assef. The reason why this motif is so crucial is that through rape, Assef destroys one’s integrity, emotional stability and dignity, and fully dominates them both physically and emotionally. Two significant cases would be Hassan’s rape and the other, Sohrab’s rape. By raping Hassan, Assef destroys two individuals: Hassan, who faces emotional trauma and breakdown afterwards, and Amir. Assef raping Hassan is the source of Amir feeling guilty and in remorse of not standing up for Hassan, and eventually leads him to make Hassan leave his family and ends up feeling guilty in his entire life, until he finds Sohrab alive and to redeem himself, plunges himself in the Taliban world to save Sohrab. Clearly, Assef held the key to change both lives. On the other hand, Sohrab’s life is changed dramatically through rape. As a result, Sohrab loses speech ability and feels extremely guilty, as he claims himself to be â€Å"so dirty and full of sin. † (Hosseini, page 319). These two â€Å"lambs†, Hassan and Sohrab, are sacrificed as a result of Assef’s misuse of power. Assef is clearly a violent man who holds the power in The Kite Runner. Assef makes full use of the power that he naturally gains in the society that he lives in, fully develops it and holds the key to change the society dramatically. He is the violence runner, to whom violence is always the solution to problems.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Impact Technology Has on Small Businesses Essay

Technology has given the world a 360 degrees turn, as well as all businesses. Technology has a great impact on our society, culture, businesses and education. This essay will not only prove why it has an impact on small businesses but also prove how it makes technology so much better and efficient. | The Impact Technology has on Businesses The impact that technology can make on a small business is huge. Technology has made the world a more efficient and more organized place to succeed, and can help a small business be a big success and accomplishment. By making a website for your business, you can help the business expand by selling products through the website, by doing this you expand the business world wide and can increase profit. You can also organize your business in all aspect, simple tasks made in a business such as book keeping and record keeping can make so much simpler by using technology. Technology is not just computers but is phones also, which is an essential for any business to have. With technology small businesses can become world-wide businesses and exceed the main purpose and achievement of the owner. To begin with, technology has made businesses grow. By using computers to achieve simple task as book keeping can make the job easier and keep all papers organized. Computers can help perform many tasks that offices have to do, like book keeping. Microsoft excel can help you perform this task in one single page without confusions and with less work than by paper. This is because excel can perform calculations for you once you adapt it, it is as simple as that. You can perform book keeping, record keeping, and perform all kind of calculations fast, understandable and visible in a single page. Now a day, you can have your meetings with business partners who are around the world in front of your computer! You can use Phones which are also a part of technology, and without them you can’t make orders for your business, or talk to others business people who can help you make your business grow while making you grow as an owner and entrepreneur also. Productivity can also improve in so many ways by using technology. Technology is exciting and can make things happen in a blink of an eye, work can be so much easier for employees. For example, now supermarkets have advance machines in order to ring the customer’s supplies, if an error occurs the employee can easily delete it instead of ringing everything up again. Without the advance technology we have today, the employees would have to put all prices by hand meaning they have to memorize all prices and if an error occurs, they will have to ring everything up again in order for the total to be correct. Also by having meetings done at that instant online you can save all the time of flying across the world to meet with a business partner, so whatever was in concern can be fixed and finish what you have to do, meaning more progress and productivity. By producing a website for your business can you can help it grow and expand your business to many other countries and produce more profit. By making a website many more people can see what your business bring to the world and have to offer. While a website is world-wide, your customers are world-wide, meaning more goods and services the business provide will be obtained and sold. If you sell your merchandize through the web you can perform a test and see how many states and countries, would like to have one of your businesses around based on the location wants and needs and construct the business in that specific location. For that fact, that the owner can make the business grow in difference ways, he/she can grow as an entrepreneur also. Finally with technology, you can produce more profit. By using technology in several ways you can increase the income of the business. Obviously, if you can produce and sell more not only in your location of business but in the web and around the world in which you will expand your business to, you will sell and increase profit. The entrepreneur’s income will increase and his success will exceed what was thought to be achieved. Anyone can be an entrepreneur but only the ones who force themselves to do better, can achieve excellence. I think that to install various businesses is not what makes an entrepreneur is how you keep those business stabilize and running is what makes a great entrepreneur. Technology doesn’t have to be imported into the business, business can be technology. There are many businesses in which technology is the main purpose, some businesses produce and sell technology, all kinds and types of it. From computers to printers to phones, not only phones but smart phones and templates which can be made into computers, mp3 and iPod. These are gadgets that are nothing without technology; technology is what brings all these gadgets to live. Some businesses cannot produce without technology if you think of it. For example, supermarkets, when you go pay at the registers, most supermarkets are now complete made of technology, the weigh in order to know the prices of fruits and vegetables are connected to the computer which transfer the weight and gives you a price, the screen you look at to keep in check the prices, that’s connected to the same monitor and it all combines to the register. When you are ready to pay and it’s with your credit card, you pass it through a machine which is connected to all and the internet to get an approval. This all needs technology to function. Matthew Hohn said â€Å"Together with the advancement of science and technology, technological innovations grew along with it, resulting to the emergence of new equipment and gadgets. No matter how big or small your company is, technology brings both intangible and tangible benefits to become cost efficient and to meet the growing demands and needs of customers† in the article. I agree with him in every aspect, technology has advance the way to look into our world and experiences, and by connecting businesses with technology and the way it can change the whole business completely is incredible. It’s truly amazing how technology has changed our world in many different ways and completely. In conclusion, technology has gave business the chance to expand and grow in many ways, by increasing profit, increasing chances of making a being a better one and achieving all the success it thought it will. With technology small businesses can become a world-wide business which will exceed achievement. By becoming world-wide the business will exceed the main purpose and achievement of the owner. Technology can go a really long way especially when it’s combined with business and greatness.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Brutus in an Honorable Man.

Estne Virtus? Confucius said that, â€Å"People with virtue must speak out; people who speak are not all virtuous. † Confucius lived in China around 500 BCE and voiced novel opinions on virtue, politics, ethics, and other abstract ideas. Even today, thousands of years later, many people believe in Confucianism. Confucius was very vocal. In Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar no man is more vocal than Brutus. He assassinates Caesar, pleads to the people for their support, and conducts war with Octavian and Marc Anthony. But is he virtuous? Brutus is not necessarily virtuous; he does all of these actions to gain glory and to show his virtue. Everyone should aspire to be virtuous. However, as seen by Marc Antony and Cassius manipulating Brutus and Brutus’s death, excessive pursuit of virtue can be detrimental. Brutus’s excessive obsession for virtue leads to his failure. Brutus loves Julius Caesar; however Cassius manages to turn Brutus against Caesar by taking advantage of Brutus’s obsession with virtue. Cassius urges Brutus to â€Å"think of the world† and kill Caesar for the good of Rome (1. 2 329). Cassius explains to Brutus that Caesar must be killed in order to preserve Rome, and not because of any other reason, like Cassius’s jealousy. Cassius explains that Caesar is unfit, saying that â€Å"Caesar cannot even swim†, and unworthy to rule Rome, saying that Brutus is more fit. Brutus does not respond to the statements made by Cassius, and draws more attention to the â€Å"general shout[s]† of the people (1. 2 139). Brutus avoids the questions and must â€Å"recount hereafter† of Cassius’s reasoning, Brutus needs time to consider if the conspiracy is virtuous or not (1. 2 174). If virtuous, then he will act. Although Brutus does admit that â€Å"Brutus had rather be a villager / than to repute himself a son of Rome / under these hard conditions at this time / is like to lay upon us† (1. 181-184). Brutus dislikes the dishonor that the tyranny of Caesar brings to Rome. He thinks it detracts from his own virtue. He cares for his virtue. Later on, Cassius also sends letters to Brutus posing as Roman citizens. Cassius gives Brutus the impression that citizens beg him to â€Å"speak, stri ke, and redress† (2. 1 49). When Brutus thinks that the people want Caesar to fall, Brutus tells himself that he joins the conspiracy for the people. In actuality, he joins the conspiracy not to preserve the Republic but to show virtue, to look better, more virtuous, in the eyes of the Roman people. Brutus is not concerned for the people, but for his image when he joins the conspiracy. Brutus should kill Marc Antony when he has the chance, and not be so concerned for his own image. For instance, when Cassius proposes to Brutus that they kill Antony along with Caesar, Brutus thinks that by killing Antony the people will look to him as â€Å"butcher† and not a â€Å"sacrificer† (2. 1 179). Instead, Brutus wants the conspirators to â€Å"[appear] to the common eyes† as â€Å"purgers, not murderers† (2. 1 192 193). This shows that Brutus bases his choices on whether or not people would view him as virtuous. Although, he acts foolishly, for he not only prevents the conspirators from killing Antony, he allows Antony, Caesar’s right hand man, to speak last in Caesar’s funeral. To Brutus, Antony â€Å"can do nothing more than Caesar’s arm / When Caesar’s head is cut off† (2. 1 195-196). Brutus lets Antony speak because it would be viewed as an act of kindness and forgiveness to what was an enemy previously. When Antony enters the pulpit after Brutus, he wins the crowd and convinces them of the conspiracy’s evil. The crowd, the Roman people, now want to set â€Å"fire [to] the traitors’ houses† (3. 269). Brutus thinks he fights for the people, though the people think otherwise. If Brutus had killed Antony, and not been so concerned about virtue, Brutus would have been able to remain in Rome, remain loved by his people. Brutus commits suicide because he believes that doing so will cause people will think of him as virtuous. Brutus is lef t to fight Antony and Octavian by himself at Philippi because Cassius kills himself. Knowing the circumstances, Brutus would rather â€Å"leap in [the pit himself]† than â€Å"tarry till they push [him]† (5. 28-29). Brutus would just as soon kill himself than have himself killed. His reasoning come from the Roman belief that when a person faces dishonor, maybe a military loss, killing oneself is a virtuous way to still obtain honor in spite of what occurred. He declares â€Å"I love / the name of honor more than [he] fear[s] death† and so he runs onto his sword (1. 2 95-96). In doing so Brutus has now doomed the preservation of the Republic for the people. If Brutus had cared for the people, he would have continued to fight for them. Brutus shows that, ontrary to what he says, he has the most concern for his own image and not the well-being of the Roman people. Brutus is a selfish man, not a virtuous man. Brutus fails not because he obtains an excessive amount o f virtue, but because he hunted for virtue excessively. He hunts for glory and virtue so obsessively that he loses sense of what he believes in. Brutus is known to many as the man of great virtue. Although, the virtue of Brutus is forced, unnatural. In the end, this in itself is not virtuous. Virtue, or any characteristic, comes from the manner in which an action is performed and not the result. Odysseus is a similar man. He does many virtuous acts, although he acts knowingly that his effect, the result of his actions, will be virtuous. Odysseus took on both Scylla and Charybdis, evil sea monsters, so he himself could demonstrate his superior virtue. Many of his shipmates, and nearly himself, are killed. Odysseus survives become more â€Å"virtuous,† more â€Å"honorable,† for surviving both monsters. Although, if one looks towards how these men performed these actions, they see no virtue. After all, it is not what one does, but how one does it.