Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Evolution of the relationship between the EU and China Research Paper

Evolution of the relationship between the EU and China - Research Paper Example Sino-European relations, during the era of the Cold War, were generally derivative of the imperatives of the cold war as well as the broader associations with the superpowers. Because of the ideological and political constraints of this era, the development of commercial and economic relations took the precedence (UN 7). On April 3, 1978, a trade agreement was signed between China and the European Community (EC). This agreement was extended in 1985 to a wider Trade and Cooperation Agreement (TCA). China got the status of Most Favored Nation (MFN) from the EC and embraced Beijing in the GSP (Generalized System of Preferences) provisions from 1980 (Stepan & Ostermann 20). These European Union-China relations, in the past few years, have been growing gradually. Since 2004, the People’s Republic of China has become EU’s second largest trading partner, with the Chinese customs claiming that EU is the biggest trading partner of China. An annual summit between the EU and China’s state/government heads is held, since 1998, to discuss the bilateral and global issues. Moreover, since October 2003, China and EU have recognized each other as effective ‘strategic partners’. The idea that the relations between China and EU have acquired a fresh strategic significance and gained momentum remains fundamental to their strategic partnership (Pastor & Gosset 1). According to the European Union External Service Action, the two sides commenced their relationship in 1975 and the 1985’s Trade and Cooperation Agreement came into force to govern their relationship (Para 1). EU remains the largest trading partner of China, while Chin a is its leading supplier of imports and the second biggest 2-way trading partner (European Union External Service Action Para 2). Therefore, EU and China have had bilateral relationship since 1975. The purpose of this paper is to examine the evolution of the relations between them with the main objective being examining the development of their relationship since 1975 by looking at various aspects of their association. The two sides hold annual summits as well as frequent trade, economic, and political dialogues, including more that 50 sectoral agreements and dialogues, which range from industrial policy to environmental protection, culture or education. Human rights are regularly discussed as a part of the regular political dialogue and during specific dialogues on human rights, held twice a year since 1995. This paper will also clarify that EU and China are allies but not competitors. Events (Economic and Political) Dictating their Relationship and the Key EU Policies The relatio ns between China and the EU have faced some hardships since 2005 with some scholars expressing their deep

Monday, October 28, 2019

Of Readers and Racial Narratives Essay Example for Free

Of Readers and Racial Narratives Essay Morrison explores the themes of fate and free will in a number of ways in the short story â€Å"Recitatif. † Regarding free will and the constant confusion over Maggie’s racial identity, Morrison is making the provocative point that a truly color blind society would still have acts of cruelty and their agents, who will never be able to really understand their own motivations. Through the picketing scene, she also explores another dark aspect of free will: that mistaken assumptions about racism and racist actions can, effectively, poor more fuel over the fire. See more: how to start a narrative essay The confusion over Maggie’s race also extends to the main characters, and the difficulty in discerning any definite racial identity on their part is Morrison’s clever way of drawing readers into the debate: after all, the arbitrary assignment of a certain identity to the two girls represents the reader trying to place a racial narrative on actions that do not inherently possess them. In doing so, the reader takes part in sowing confusion over race relations, and can more intimately understand how two life-long friends can end up on opposite sides of an ideological boycott because of the mistakes of the past. Morrison’s main inclusion of exploring fate is in the similar origins of the girls—she explores two lives that started out similar and yet ended up quite different, and invites the reader to determine what part (if any) race had to do with this. Discussion question: in forcing readers to overlay their own racial narrative over essentially color-neutral events, is Morrison the provocateur illustrating the inevitability of racism? And if so, what role should color-conscious modern students of race relations play in moving towards an integrated future?

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Internet - We Must Put an End to Virtual Rape :: Argumentative Persuasive Essays

We Must Put an End to Virtual Rape "Any unwanted sexual act is a crime of violence" (Victims Information, 1998). Do you believe that? When referring that quote to rape, it almost sounds like a broad definition of it. But what about virtual rape? Does an unwanted sexual encounter on computers also count for a crime of violence? This is an important question for our society today to address for the simple fact that technology is the wave of our future and as our world becomes increasingly intertwined with the virtual world, we need to be prepared for the problems that our new virtual world might present. For me, as for many others, rape is definitely a much more serious and dangerous encounter than virtual rape. But all the same, virtual rape should not be dismissed for the effects it has on the people involved. I am going to present to you three main points. First, I'm going to define virtual rape by taking you through one of the most well known cases that actually occurred in the virtual world. Second, I w ill define rape in our world. Third and finally, I will take you through some of the different issues that are brought up while discussing virtual rape versus real rape. We'll start off with my first point of what is virtual rape? "They say he raped them that night" (Vitanza, 448) is the beginning of an intriguing story, A Rape in Cyberspace, in which the author, Julian Dibbell, answers that very question. With the horrifying tale of Mr. Bungle and his victims, legba and Starsinger, Dibbell reiterates the events that took place on the LambdaMOO on that Monday night in March. The LambdaMOO is a MUD, which is short for "multi-user dungeons." According to a journal article in Maclean's, "MUDs are virtual communities, little universes that exist only on the Internet. Users from around the world can access the host program, which allows them to assume an identity and develop an alternative self" (Chidley, 51). With the LambdaMOO defined, let's look more closely at the virtual rape Mr. Bungle committed on legba and Starsinger that took place there. Mr. Bungle, Starsinger and legba are persona's of the people who created them for the use of virt ual portrayal while logged on at the LambdaMOO.

Thursday, October 24, 2019


Suburbia Paper A â€Å"staple† of a quality liberal arts education would be theater that truly presses the boundaries of conventional society. CU’s recent rendition of Eric Bogosian’s Suburbia revealed how great Boulder is at pushing the limits of what is considered politically correct, and challenging taboos. The story takes place in front of a 7-11 in a small, suburban New Jersey town, and follows a tragic two day span in the life of a few early 20 something youths, who are circling the proverbial drain. The youths spend the majority of their time drinking and complaining about the world instead of working to improve themselves.The main character, Jeff Gallagher, is a troubled alcoholic who is in love with the idea of his girlfriend Sooze Beckwith. To say that their relationship is complicated would be putting it lightly, with Jeff’s â€Å"Rebel Without a Cause† mindset and Sooze’s dream of moving to New York and becoming a successful artis t. They were doomed from the start, but with the introduction of Neil â€Å"Pony† Moynihan, the play’s antagonist, their fate is sealed. Easily considered the most complex character in the play, Tim Mitchum’s character appealed to me the most as the playwrite dared to spotlight an American hero, the soldier, in a way considered most taboo.Propaganda films since the 1920’s have done a fantastic job at glorifying the soldier as an American hero, so Bogosian’s decision to depict the honorably discharged Irag veteran as an unfulfilled alcoholic with performance anxiety is extremely progressive and daring. The interaction between Tim and the Pakistani store owners was an excellent depiction of modern day racism and prejudice. The action of the play begins with the reunion of the gang’s aforementioned high school companion turned successful musician, Pony. His presence is unwelcomed by Jeff, who feels his relationship with Sooze is threatened by t he successes experienced by Pony.The conflict only gets worse as Sooze starts to fancy the idea of moving to New York with Pony. The action climaxes with the death of Bee-Bee Douglass from alcohol poisoning and drug overdose. This death was symbolic of the realization experienced, by each of the characters, that life is real and there are consequences to each of your actions or lack-there-of. I would strongly recommend seeing a performance of Suburbia, especially to a member of my own generation, as it has a deeply profound message, disguised with the language often spoken by today’s youth. There is more to a successful performance than an edgy plot.CU’s utilization of a Black Box stage really aided in the effect by adding to the realism of the show. It gave the audience a chance to get immersed into the story. In the first act, as the lights go on, the audience is overwhelmed by actors dressed in plain clothes, behaving much as the troubled youth behave in the real wo rld today. This coupled with being on level ground as the audience allows the audience to feel as if they are watching the events happen not being performed. This causes the viewers to be dragged in and become fully invested in the play from being so close and in the action.Another design element that really stood out to me was the attention to detail in everything ranging from the stocked shelves on the interior of the store, where no action takes place, to the simplicity of the costumes worn throughout the course of the action. In the second act, Pony, the famous rockstar walks on stage with only a guitar case to distinguish himself from the regular people of his hometown. This symbolism added to the theme that you are in control of your life by showing that even the ones idolized by the masses are still just regular people with small distinguishing features.Within the first few minutes of the show the audience is overwhelmed with F-bombs and politically incorrect slurs. Suburbiaà ¢â‚¬â„¢s abrasive dialogue might be concerning to some, and the director’s decision to keep all of it certainly speaks on the intended message. The aspect that won me over the most was in the first act when the character most responsible for comedic relief, Buff Macleod, was constantly making a mess by throwing food and beer all over the stage. The utilization of authentic props greatly added to the play’s realism.Buff’s character is written to be zany and comical, but the way the actor became Buff was by chewing his pizza with his mouth open and fully investing in each step of his blocking, forcing him to act like a complete buffoon. The second act was won over by a spectacular performance by the actress playing Bee-Bee. The directing and acting styles used to portray the emotional turmoil suffered really allowed to audience to feel how Bee-Bee felt immediately prior to her suicide. Her wavering voice as she spoke her final words on the phone forced the room to tears as the crowd watched the life being drawn from a vibrant youth.As a typically emotionless male stereotype, I regret to admit that even my eyes came in contact with the occasional twinkle of sadness. Strictly for the emotional experience alone, I would recommend this show be frequented. The production did an amazing job at projecting the message of how life can pass you by, if you don’t take full advantage of the privileges given. This life lesson is strongest during the several conflicts between the alcoholic veteran Tim and the muslim store owner Nazeer.Tim represents the loss of drive to have a happy life whereas Nazeer being the foreigner with American dream aspirations represents optimism and hope. This message could be easily translated into a contemporary dance number with minimal subtractions from the original piece. The reason this is possible is due to the fact that, like the characters themselves, the plot is rather stagnant without clear direction. The main themes of the play were not ones that were so abstract that dialogue is a necessity, so the removal of that would not detract from the message.The strong character development would translate very well, giving the dancers room to be expressive with the roles. As with most things in life, this translation would have both its advantages as well as its disadvantages. The strongest benefit would be that the translation would be less aggressive without its foul language, allowing a broader audience to be impacted by the message. The disadvantage would be that in translating the piece you would forfeit the shocking power that much of the dialogue had.The complete disrespect that Tim shows to Nazeer would be difficult to translate into dance without the impact of taboo language used in the original. In summation, Suburbia was an edgy, progressive play about the dwindling youth of suburban America. I would strongly recommend going to see it not only for entertainment purposes, but also for the opportunity to see a play that is destined to pioneer modern theater. Bogosian’s complete disregard for political correctness is a welcomed innovation to the arts that I hope to see in more up and coming theater.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Internal & External Conflict Essay

Struggle, struggle, struggle! We live in a time of conflict, external and internal. External conflict is a struggle between man and an outside force. Internal conflict is a struggle between man and self. Dealing with each conflict can be difficult, but there’s always a way to deal with it nonetheless. Dealing with internal conflict can be more difficult because you’re dealing with your own emotions and it can sometimes lead to depression. Don’t push away your thoughts if you are dealing with internal conflict. Pushing away your thoughts would make the situation more intense. Think about ways you can manage it instead of pushing the thoughts away. It can help if you write the conflict down or don’t let your mind fight itself. Dealing with external conflict is sometimes more simple. Effective listening is a way to deal with external conflict. It’s important to listen and understand the other person’s point of view. Effective listening doesnâ₠¬â„¢t always work out which is why communication is key. It’s important to clearly communicate your own feelings without putting the other person on the defensive. The conflicts I have dealt with in my life are mostly internal. I try my best to keep my problems within myself so that the conflict I’m dealing with doesn’t become another person’s problem. I wouldn’t want an internal conflict to become an external conflict, so I manage my problems myself. Growing up, I’ve always found it difficult to choose between one choice and the other. My most common line I’ve used is â€Å"It doesn’t matter†. I have always been scared of choosing one thing and having it become the wrong choice. Even up to now, I still use that line. I know it’s going to become a problem. Real soon, I would have to stop using that line and start making choices myself. The choices I have to choose from could be as little as which flavor of ice cream I want to as big as choosing when I want to start driving classes. I have to stop having other people choose for me and start choosing for myself because one day, itâ₠¬â„¢s going to become an even bigger problem. Other than that, if something personal were really hitting me hard, I would draw or read just to get through the problem. I would most likely read to escape reality because being in the book’s world is a place I would rather be in at that moment. I rarely deal with external conflict. When I do, I take it really hard because I haven’t dealt with much external conflict in my life. I try my best to be a good person and prevent myself into getting into situations with another person. If I were ever dealing with external conflict, it would most likely be a disagreement with another person. I’m that person who stands their ground. If I had an opinion or a chance to prove someone wrong, I would. It’s not about being right; it’s about preventing another person into believing something else when it’s wrong. Yes, everyone is entitled to his or her own opinion, but sometimes that opinion of something is not right. I have a lot of patience, so I wouldn’t snap at someone right when there’s a disagreement. If someone were really getting on my nerves, I would stand my ground. I would say what I have to say then stop and walk away because sometimes, it’s just not worth it. One external conflict I always have to deal with is plain and simple, my brother. I have three older brothers, but one specific brother of mine is a complete nuisance. We fight on a daily basis and sometimes standing my ground isn’t even worth it. One night, we had a disagreement on school. My brother believes that school is a waste of time and being book smart is not as beneficial as having common sense. He says that being book smart isn’t going to get you anywhere in life and that common sense will make you more successful. I disagree with him completely because nowadays, you need an education to have a successful life. I just want to prove to him that I’m not going to be a failure and striving to do my best is going to pay off. Everyone is going to have to encounter a conflict in his or her life. Nobody’s perfect and everyone’s different so there’s always going to be problems. Conflict isn’t a bad thing. The only kind of bad conflict is unresolved conflict. Getting through a conflict will make you stronger and you’ll be able to conquer life more successfully. Internal conflict is harder to deal with in my own opinion because with internal conflict, no one can help you but yourself. You can get help to deal with an internal conflict, but at the end of the day, it’s up to yourself to get through the problem. When it comes to external conflict, there will always have someone who has your back and will help you out, which is why internal conflict is worst. One conflict can become stronger than the other if you are better at handling one conflict and getting past it than the other. The best ways to deal with internal conflict is to talk about the problem or do something to get your mind off it. The best ways to deal with external conflict is think about a way to solve the conflict without making it worst, walk away, or once again, do something to get your mind off it. One little tip, attitude will only make the conflict worst. Conflict is inevitable and it’s needed. Conflict develops a character. If there weren’t conflict in the world, life would be a bore.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Grab Attention with LinkedIn GIFs, Images, Videos, and Emojis

Grab Attention with LinkedIn GIFs, Images, Videos, and Emojis This morning I woke up to what appeared to be the new face of LinkedIn. Instead of my profile as I’ve become accustomed to seeing it, with member photos nicely centered on the page, this new image appeared: You may have noticed this change as well. Sigh†¦ so much for all that careful placement of the background image! LinkedIn is at it again. I do like the menu on the right, where a member’s contact info is easy to access. In your own profile, you can click on â€Å"See connections† rather than hunt around for that option (note that in a different member’s profile, you will only see the number of connections, not a link to view them). The option to â€Å"Add a profile section† from your own profile is much easier to find as well. I also like that more of the summary is visible now than in the previous update. You have three lines instead of two to communicate your value proposition and entice people to read more. We all know that â€Å"the only thing that is constant is change† (Heraclitus), and this adage is especially true when it comes to social media platforms. Yet no matter how well we understand this truth, change still catches us off guard. This one gave me a bit of a shock, as it looks like I will need to replace the images in my book very soon. Other changes to the visual experience of LinkedIn have been afoot since my last update in December 2017. Here’s some of what’s been evolving on LinkedIn in 2018. Video in Groups and Posts LinkedIn has improved the sharing experience in groups and article posts by allowing videos. To post a video in a group, Start a conversation with your group by clicking in the details field and pasting in the URL of the video. You may need to add a space after pasting in the URL to see the video populate the preview field below. Once the preview is in place, you can delete the ugly URL and give your post a title and further details if you like. To post a video in an article, go to your home page, and then enter a URL in the box that says â€Å"Share an article, photo, video or idea.† Or, click on â€Å"Video† to attach a file from your computer. Images in Comments When you comment on an article, there’s now an option to increase visual appeal by adding a photo. An image can draw more attention to your comment, so go for it! Click on the camera icon and attach any photo from your files. Note that you cant post an image only; you must also leave a written comment. Here’s what your image might look like in a conversation: LinkedIn GIFs LinkedIn has for some reason implemented GIFs in their messaging. I personally am anti-GIF, and I don’t think they belong anywhere, much less on a business platform. However, there are many people who disagree with me, and if you want to use GIFs in more casual interactions on LinkedIn, have fun! Just click the GIF option below your message and type in a search term.      Ã‚   For more details on using LinkedIn GIFs, read LinkedIn Official Blogs article Make Conversations More Engaging with GIFs in Messaging. Emojis You can now use colorful characters in your Headline, as well as in most sections and titles in your LinkedIn profile. If you want to add some visual appeal, an appropriate emoji can be a bold addition. Note that not all symbols will render in color once youve updated, so you may need to experiment. Also, this function might not work on all computers or browsers, so some viewers may see an empty box instead of the symbol you chose. I would personally recommend sticking to Unicode characters to be safe. Have fun! Have you noticed any other changes to the visual face of LinkedIn? Do you have questions I can answer? Please share in the comments! If youd like live, personal feedback from me on your profile, I offer a 20-minute LinkedIn Profile Review special for just $75. I look forward to scheduling a call with you!

Monday, October 21, 2019

How to Give and Receive Gifts in English

How to Give and Receive Gifts in English Every culture has its own customs for gift-giving, and there are special words and phrases for such occasions in every language, including English. Whether youre new to the language or are fairly proficient, you can learn what to say when youre giving or receiving a gift in just about any situation. Formal and Informal Situations In much of the English-speaking world, it is customary to strike the right tone when giving and receiving gifts. In informal situations, such as when youre with friends or family, gift-givers and their lucky recipients can both be casual or clever. Some people like to make a big fuss when they give presents; others are very modest. The important thing is to be sincere.  Speech tends to be more conservative in formal situations such as a wedding or a workplace or when giving or receiving a gift from someone you dont know well. Phrases for Giving Gifts Here are some common informal phrases you can use when youre giving a gift to a close friend, family member, or loved one: I got you something. I hope you like it.Look what I have for you!I thought you might like this for ...Happy Birthday! [Happy Anniversary!] Heres a little gift/present for you.[Handing present to someone] Enjoy!Its only something small, but I hope you like it.Heres a little present for you.Guess what I bought you! These are a few common phrases for gift-giving in formal settings, such as a wedding or business dinner: [Name] Id like to give you this present/gift.[Name], This is a present that I/we/staff/got you.  Id like to present you with this ... [very formal, used when giving an award or special present]In the name of [xyz], Id like to give you this present.  [also very formal]Here is a token of our appreciation. Phrases for Receiving Presents A sincere thank you spoken with a smile is the only English phrase you really need when someone gives you a gift. But if you want to expand your vocabulary, youll want to know some other phrases to use in different situations: Thank you so much!Thats so kind!You shouldnt have!Thank you! Its beautiful.I love it! Ill put it on / hang it up [etc.] immediately.That is so thoughtful of you. It matches my ... perfectly!How did you know Ive always wanted a ... to go with my...?Thank you. I really needed a ...Fantastic! Ive been thinking about getting a ...This is exactly what I needed. Now, I can ...How kind of you! Ive always wanted to see ... in concert / at the movies / at an exhibition.Wow! This is a dream come true! Tickets for ...Thank you so much! Ive hoped/wanted to travel to ... for a long time. Practice Dialogues Now that you know more about what to say when you give or receive a present, youll want to practice the statements to keep your skills sharp. The following two dialogues are a good place to start. The first one is an informal setting between two people who know each other. The second dialogue is what youd hear in a formal setting like an office.   Informal Friend 1: Tammy, I need to talk to you for a moment. Friend 2: Anna, hi! Its good to see you. Friend 1: I got you something. I hope you like it. Friend 2: Im sure I will. Let me open it! Friend 1: Its only something small. Friend 2: Come on. Thank you so much! Friend 1: ... Well, what do you think? Friend 2: I love it! It matches my sweater! Friend 1: I know. Thats why I bought it. Friend 2: How did you know Ive always wanted a broach to go with this sweater? Friend 1: Im glad you like it. Friend 2: Like it? I love it! Formal Colleague 1: Your attention, your attention! Tom, could you come over here? Colleague 2: Whats this? Colleague 1: Tom, in the name of everybody here, Id like to give you this token of our appreciation. Colleague 2: Thank you, Bob. This is an honor. Colleague 1: We thought you might be able to use this at home. Colleague 2: Lets see ... let me open it. Colleague 1: The suspense is killing us. Colleague 2: Youve wrapped it up tight! ... Oh, its beautiful. Colleague 1: What do you think? Colleague 2: Thank you so much! This is exactly what I needed. Now I can get to work building that birdhouse. Colleague 1: We had a little help from your wife. She told us about your love of woodworking. Colleague 2: What a thoughtful gift. Ill put it to good use immediately. Colleague 1: Thank you, Tom, for all youve done for this company. Colleague 2: My pleasure, indeed. To Learn More Its also important to learn how to pay someone a compliment in English.  Both of these tasks require you to say thank you. This is known as a language function. Learning these important functional phrases can help you become more fluent in a wide variety of social situations.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

The Conjugations for Déranger (to Disturb) in French

The Conjugations for Dà ©ranger (to Disturb) in French Dà ©ranger  is the French verb that means to disturb. This ones easy to remember if you think of the English derange, which is a synonym of disturb in some circumstances. In order to change the verb meaning to disturbed or disturbing, a conjugation is required and a quick lesson will walk you through this. Conjugating the French Verb  Dà ©ranger Dà ©ranger  is a  spelling change verb  and it follows a pattern found in similar verbs that end in -ger. This includes  corriger  (to correct) and  bouger  (to move)  and theres a good reason behind the subtle changes. When the letter G is followed by a hard vowel like an A or O, it typically uses a hard G sound. However, in words like  dà ©ranger, we want to retain the soft G and that is why an I sometimes replaces the E in conjugations.   Using the table, study the verb endings attached to the stem  dà ©rang-. Match the subject pronoun to the present, future, or imperfect past tense to find the correct form to use. For instance, I disturb is je dà ©range and we will disturb is  nous avons dà ©rangerons. Subject Present Future Imperfect je drange drangerai drangeais tu dranges drangeras drangeais il drange drangera drangeait nous drangeons drangerons drangions vous drangez drangerez drangiez ils drangent drangeront drangeaient The Present Participle of  Dà ©ranger The  present participle  of  dà ©ranger  is  dà ©rangeant.  This is done by simply adding -ant  to the verb stem. Beyond its usage as a verb, this can also become an adjective, gerund, or noun in some instances. Another Common  Past Tense Form   The  passà © composà ©Ã‚  is a common way to say the past tense disturbed in French. To use it, conjugate the  auxiliary, or helping verb  avoir  to fit the subject pronoun, then attach the  past participle  dà ©rangà ©. As an example, I disturbed is jai dà ©rangà © and we disturbed is nous avons dà ©rangà ©. Notice how the  ai  and  avons  are conjugates of  avoir  and that the past participle does not change. More Simple  Dà ©ranger  Conjugations The subjunctive verb mood is used when the verb has a level of uncertainty. Similarly, the conditional verb mood implies that the action is dependent on something else. These two verb forms are quite useful, especially with a verb like  dà ©ranger  where the disturbance may be questionable. Used with less frequency, you will often only come across the passà © composà © and the imperfect subjunctive in formal writing. Subject Subjunctive Conditional Pass Simple Imperfect Subjunctive je drange drangerais drangeai drangeasse tu dranges drangerais drangeas drangeasses il drange drangerait drangeas dranget nous drangions drangerions drangemes drangeassions vous drangiez drangeriez drangetes drangeassiez ils drangent drangeraient drangrent drangeassent To express  dà ©ranger  in an exclamation, demand, or request, the imperative form is used. For this conjugation, the subject pronoun is not required, so tu dà ©range can be shortened to dà ©range. Imperative (tu) drange (nous) drangeons (vous) drangez

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Conceptions of Vocational Education Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 6000 words

Conceptions of Vocational Education - Essay Example The competency test is aimed to measure job success, which cognitive tests failed to do. In this sense, competency tests were seen as an alternative to traditional cognitive tests (Delmare and Winterton 2005). On the other hand, Barnett and Depinet (1991) argued that cognitive tests are capable of predicting job success. They cited the work of Hunter (1986) which claimed that cognitive tests do predict job success. Nonetheless, what is necessary in this discourse is the supposition that competency tests were developed in order to measure the fit between the person and the job success (McClelland 1994). 10 Functional Approach. The functional approach is competent –based approach, and it follows the United Kingdom tradition (Delamare Le Deist and Winterton 2005). This approach is based on the consultation among employees, employers, trade unions, scholars, academicians, regulating and professional bodies with the aim of developing an occupational standard across a particular occ upational group (Rolls 1997). There is a lead organization that the government organises that serve as the steering committee. 13 Holistic and Multi-Dimensional/Integrated Approach (H-MD/I approach). This approach tackles the issues and concerns of competence not only from the perspective of the individual, organisation, action, and job function, but it also deals with the influence of external factors to the understanding of competence (Hager 2013; Gonzci 2013). This approach develops in three countries in Europe, namely, Spain, Germany, and Austria. It is significant to note that this approach develop in Europe with minimal influence from McClelland (Delamare Le Deist and Winterton 2005). On the other hand, Hager and Gonzci in Australia develop the holistic and multidimensional approach, which is also called as integrated approach. Hager and Gonzci works are hallmark in the field and their contributions have transformed the landscape of vocational education and training. 16 Conclu sion 23 References 27 Competence: what does it mean? Introduction In the past few decades, the notion of competence has gained prominence in the fields of management and education. In the sphere of management, competence has been used in developing standards that will provide organisations strategic competitive advantage (Campbell and Sommer Lochs 1997; Nadler and Tushman 1999). Whereas, in education, it has been used in the development of vocational education and training (Mulder, Weigel, and Collins 2006). The ‘popularity of competence’ (Mulder et al. 2006) is based on the supposition that it aligns education and training with the demands and needs of the labour market (Boon and van der Klink 2002). Thus, it assists employees and employers in responding to the changes and challenges brought by technological innovation, lifelong learning policies, and employment strategies (Delamare Le Deist and Winterton 2005). In this context, competence is now considered as the hall mark of a successful manager, teacher, nurse, waiter, crane driver, and sales person (Beckett 2004, p.495). As such, competence plays an integral role in understanding the contemporary dynamics of labour market and business environment. Human competence is the â€Å"heart of economic competition† (Tatangang 2011, p. 549). However, it is observed that there is no universal agreement among scholars regarding a common definition that may be attributed to the concept of competence (Ha

Coriolis Effect Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Coriolis Effect - Essay Example The first influence of the Coriolis effect is related to the ocean. It can influence the ocean through the interaction with other factors such as temperature and the physical characteristics of the ocean basin. Another important influence is related to the surface currents with broad circulatory patterns referred to as gyres. Basically, the Coriolis effect causes the clockwise movement of the gyres in the Northern Hemisphere and counterclockwise movement in the Southern Hemisphere. Surface currents though do not cross the equator but waters in the equatorial region are affected by the tropical easterlies or trade winds thus producing the Equatorial Current. The Coriolis effect then causes the movement of warm water to the pole while the cool water currents flow to the equatorial region (Gabler and others 2008, p.133). The influence of Coriolis effect is also visible in the atmospheric phenomena such as the wind currents and other air currents and movements such as cyclones. Coriolis effect in relation to the wind currents can be related to different factors such as the force, the friction and pressure gradient. One example is the geostrophic wind which goes parallel to isobars and is affected by the friction and pressure gradient and turns 90 degrees due to Coriolis effect.

Friday, October 18, 2019

Preschool Observation Project Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Preschool Observation Project - Essay Example 3. The three physical features that made me determine that John was a preschooler were his talkative feature, attentiveness, and his profanity behavior. I realized that he was talkative by the way he said many and different things in a short period. His attentiveness was evident by the way he paid attention to questions and enjoyed discussing serious issues. His profanity was evident by the way he used silly words most of the time. 4. According to my observation, John was in good health. This is arguably true because his height and weight fit for a child of his age. Nevertheless, although he was slightly bigger than others, this could be attributed to hormonal differences that differ from one person to another. On the other hand, I was convinced that his psychological well being was fit. I concluded this because for the duration not less an hour, I closely watched and monitored his behaviors as he interacted with other pupils. At one point, he played a role of a football referee and his conduct was normal. He even tried to resolve a misunderstanding between two players. As for his nutrition, I could see him eat comfortably his lunch meal. However, I observed that he had small injury on his face, but being at his age, I took it to be normal because such injuries occur when children of his age are playing. 1. According to what I observed from John, there were some gross motor skills involved. For the time that I observed John, I observed him running, throwing, and skipping. When they played hind and seek game, John used to run when hiding from the seeker. He threw stones at some targeted destinations to hit a marked ground as required by the game they were playing. Skipping was also evident most of the time when they were playing. 1. During the one hour that I observed John, I could see him use his fine motor skills well. I observed that John could easily use the spoon to feed himself, tying his she races, and drawing some shapes. During

Pregnancy before Marriage Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Pregnancy before Marriage - Essay Example It is arguably true that sex is a basic human need that all desire to enjoy with someone they care whether married or not. From a spiritual point of view, Christianity teaches that sex is actually good. In fact, God recommends it (Got questions Web). There are teenagers who seek comfort in sexual relations when they feel incomplete and unappreciated. They engage in sexual relationships that in most cases lead to pregnancies long before they get married. Teens will like to control their lifestyles even when they are under parental care. Hence, when they feel that their parents are exerting too much control in their lives, they seek freedom, support, and affection outside the family. Indeed, they feel emotional security when they engage in sexual relationships with their partners. However, little parental monitoring also promotes premarital sex. Additionally, a parental belief that adolescent sex is appropriate and inevitable fosters premarital relations among the teens. Single parenth ood may also contribute to premarital sex (Focus on the family Web). The aftermath of this may lead to pregnancies and diseases. Additionally, some think it is fashionable to engage in sex before marriage because that is the general trend among the teens. Christians and other religions have done little in talking about sex with some avoiding the topic completely. Our cultures assume that there is no control over sex and thus sex has become common before marriage. Actually many Christians are not considering it as a sin. The present lifestyle promotes sexual relationships and pregnancies before marriage. Teens that are in alcohol and drug use are susceptible to premarital sex because they lose control... This essay stresses that sex is a basic human need that all desire to enjoy with someone they care whether married or not. From a spiritual point of view, Christianity teaches that sex is actually good. In fact, God recommends it. There are teenagers who seek comfort in sexual relations when they feel incomplete and unappreciated. They engage in sexual relationships that in most cases lead to pregnancies long before they get married. Teens will like to control their lifestyles even when they are under parental care. Hence, when they feel that their parents are exerting too much control in their lives, they seek freedom, support, and affection outside the family. Indeed, they feel emotional security when they engage in sexual relationships with their partners. This paper declares that christians and other religions have done little in talking about sex with some avoiding the topic completely. Our cultures assume that there is no control over sex and thus sex has become common before marriage. Actually many Christians are not considering it as a sin. The present lifestyle promotes sexual relationships and pregnancies before marriage. Teens that are in alcohol and drug use are susceptible to premarital sex because they lose control of their conscience and importance in life. The movies, the porn magazines, and the secular songs all predispose young people to premarital sex. Thus, teens who are their customers, are likely to buy their idea and start practicing sex before marriage.

Thursday, October 17, 2019

What is the relationship between tuberculosis and poverty in the uk Essay

What is the relationship between tuberculosis and poverty in the uk - Essay Example risk of developing tuberculosis include age, gender, ethnicity, genetic factors, body build, pregnancy, lifestyle (occupation, poverty, diet, smoking, drinking alcohol, drug abuse, place of residence), specific protection (BCG vaccine), medical factors like the presence of HIV AIDs or certain types of cancers, or undergoing treatments like haemodialysis or Immunosuppressive treatment. (Davies, 2005). There are strong indications that susceptibility to both the infection and the disease of tuberculosis is dependent on a variety of factors. The current research is aimed towards finding direct and indirect linkages between poverty and tuberculosis. The indirect links between poverty and TB can be analyzed from the positive correlation of factors like ethnicity, the presence of HIV AIDs, lifestyle, both with the rates of incidences of tuberculosis and with the presence of poverty. For presenting evidence on poverty affecting the rate of tuberculosis more directly, there have been several studies that have quoted poverty as a major factor in the cause of the disease. This paper hopes to carry out an exhaustive literature survey by an intelligent analysis and presentation of the interpretations and findings of an exhaustive list of available resources. By doing this, it is hoped to establish how poverty is related to tuberculosis in the United Kingdom. The primary objective of the present study is to discover if poverty does indeed influence the incidence of tuberculosis in the UK. In addition, this paper also aims to explore and present revealing insights about various possible factors that lead to the infection and disease of TB. This is done so as to find if these others factors are in anyway related to poverty, thus making poverty a major risk factor for TB. It is important to explain the methodology that was adopted and the consequent methods that were employed, and also the reasons for using them. The following pages will help to elaborate upon the above so

The final exam is a case study that you need to read and submit a Essay

The final exam is a case study that you need to read and submit a written analysis not exceeding 3 single spaced pages. The cas - Essay Example The goals and vision of the company shows the reason behind the measures which it took and how it apologized to its customers for its ignorance of the issue of child labor (Bartlett, Dessain, and Sjoman, 1-12). COMPREHENSIVE ANALYSIS Child labor has always been the focus of attention for different NGO’s. The retailers and other businesses associate themselves with producers working in the developing countries so that the cost of production can be reduced. The producers operating in such areas do not follow the laws or protect the rights of the children. The development of IKEA exhibits the sheer hard work of its founder. From a small mail order organization the company developed into a global retailer over the years. The company set some basic sourcing principles and outsourced its production processes for meeting the demand. This also allowed IKEA in reducing the cost of the products and expanding their sales prominently. IKEA also took continuous measure for expanding the bu siness. With the evolving business the culture and the values of the business expanded. This developed strong ground for the business allowing it to expand in different industries. The management emphasized on simplicity and focused on paying attention to the minor details (Bartlett, Dessain, and Sjoman, 1-12). ... The shockwave of this problem created hurdles for the business. Facing this problem and understanding that India, Pakistan and Nepal were not the signatories of this clause the business added a new clause in the supply contract. This stopped the suppliers from using labor for the production of goods. This type of monitoring was difficult so services of a Scandinavian company were hired for the purpose of quality assurance. The early lesson associated to the organization was that deeply imbedded to the problem the management had to take actions for the process. Different NGO’s, UN organizations and the carpet export organizations took measures for highlighting such issues so that the problems could be dealt with. While the organization was on the verge of dealing with this problem the business realized that a new issue took place. The German television made an investigative documentary which showed that Rangan exports one of the major suppliers of IKEA as using child labor for the production process. This created new problems for the company as it was the only company amongst the large retailers facing such problem. From the suggestions the company acted in cutting off the deal with the supplier. The measures which were analyzed showed that IKEA apologized to the industry and its customers for its ignorance and failing to acknowledge that they were unaware of the fact. This showed the social responsiveness of the business and prescribed that the organization gives heed to the social issues even at the opportunity cost of business profits (Bartlett, Dessain, and Sjoman, 1-12). The summary of the testaments which the business has made for defining the core values of the

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

What is the relationship between tuberculosis and poverty in the uk Essay

What is the relationship between tuberculosis and poverty in the uk - Essay Example risk of developing tuberculosis include age, gender, ethnicity, genetic factors, body build, pregnancy, lifestyle (occupation, poverty, diet, smoking, drinking alcohol, drug abuse, place of residence), specific protection (BCG vaccine), medical factors like the presence of HIV AIDs or certain types of cancers, or undergoing treatments like haemodialysis or Immunosuppressive treatment. (Davies, 2005). There are strong indications that susceptibility to both the infection and the disease of tuberculosis is dependent on a variety of factors. The current research is aimed towards finding direct and indirect linkages between poverty and tuberculosis. The indirect links between poverty and TB can be analyzed from the positive correlation of factors like ethnicity, the presence of HIV AIDs, lifestyle, both with the rates of incidences of tuberculosis and with the presence of poverty. For presenting evidence on poverty affecting the rate of tuberculosis more directly, there have been several studies that have quoted poverty as a major factor in the cause of the disease. This paper hopes to carry out an exhaustive literature survey by an intelligent analysis and presentation of the interpretations and findings of an exhaustive list of available resources. By doing this, it is hoped to establish how poverty is related to tuberculosis in the United Kingdom. The primary objective of the present study is to discover if poverty does indeed influence the incidence of tuberculosis in the UK. In addition, this paper also aims to explore and present revealing insights about various possible factors that lead to the infection and disease of TB. This is done so as to find if these others factors are in anyway related to poverty, thus making poverty a major risk factor for TB. It is important to explain the methodology that was adopted and the consequent methods that were employed, and also the reasons for using them. The following pages will help to elaborate upon the above so

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

University's Tools for Achieving Lifelong Learning Essay

University's Tools for Achieving Lifelong Learning - Essay Example There is little question that I have had a fortunate upbringing. In my life, I have a number of positive influences from my family, the faculty at my International Baccalaureate diploma program but also my fellow students. The classroom environment in my IB Program has a lot of students from diverse backgrounds and we often collaborate on projects. Frequently this presents a number of challenges insofar as on many occasions different parties believe projects should go in different directions. However, I believe that it is through working together that we can achieve the best results. Moreover, by working with people from diverse backgrounds not only can I learn more about what it takes to succeed in the real world but I gain a better representation of the diverse society that we live in. When we achieve a good grade on an assignment that we completed together I feel as though I have learned a lot more than just the curriculum. I have always wanted to attend University because I belie ve that being in the academic environment would help push me to perform at my highest level. In addition to building my ability to work in groups, I believe that the programs offered at your University will provide me with the tools to achieve lifelong learning. I always thrived in environments in which the learning curve is steep and I recognize that University requires a great deal of work but I believe the experience will be the very cornerstone of my future. I believe I have what it takes to exceed your expectations and should you need anything else from me I will be more than happy to accommodate your needs.

Monday, October 14, 2019

The Inspiration of Country Singers and Country Music Essay Example for Free

The Inspiration of Country Singers and Country Music Essay Jason Aldean, Country singer and Guitarist, has released four Albums and 14 songs to the radio in only six years. It would be unfair for us to say he is a superstar in the making, the reason being he has had concert sold-out amphitheater shows. Jason Aldean has been nominated and won many awards for his magificent music. Aldeans music talks about familys, life, relationships, to losing a family member,and everything else you can think of, all of his music will inspire you in different ways even if it puts a smile on your face, or even if it makes you cry. Jason Aldean grew up in Macon, Georgia. His parents seperated when he was three years old, and spent his life growing up with his mother in Macon. The times he got to see his father was the summer time. His father taught him how to play the guitar while he was there with him. Aldeans father lived in Homestead, Florida. The Georgia native was listening to country music before he could talk. He was going to country concerts by the time he was in grade school. He was playing guitar before he reached his teens and was performing country music professionally while he was a junior-high student. Aldean fell under the spell of Country music, and inspired him to do what he loved to do the most. Aldean made his first public appearance as a singer at a VFW hall in Macon when he was 14 years old. After all he has done he became a regular at talent contests, then continued on pursuing a music career on a full-time basis. He graduated from High School, also continued on to College. Aldean privately financed an eight-song CD to sell at shows recording it in Nashville in 1996. Jason Aldean is a major country star. He also had won the ACM award for the top Male Vocalist. He will continue to inspire many people all across the world with his compassionate music and the effort and love he puts forth into his singing he will always be an inspiration to many across the United States. Aldean is always wearing his cowboy hat anyone would rarely see him without one on, once in awhile he would change up to wear a baseball cap, its pretty much his signature style to wear his cowboy hat. Jason Aldean has a beautiful wife Jessica, he married his high school sweetheart, and now they have two loving daughters, who look up to their father. Aldeans daughters honestly have their dad wrapped around their fingers. Jason Aldean also fell into several flaws with starting to moving on with his passion of country music, to write, to sing and be a guitarist of the music he loves. Jason also thensigned into another record deal but then soon after it was dropped in 2000 because he kept postponing recording sessions one after another. His manager at the time; Lawrence Mathis, who had said to him that Aldean has six more months to get a record deal, or Aldean was moving back to Georgia. Jason Aldeans debut album is a country-music triumph, and maybe thats because hes been working toward it, quite literally, all his life. In my opinion, his move to Nashville was a great move for him and recording was his destiny. Like the old saying goes, the darkest hour is just before dawn. In the summer of 2003, Jason was ready to throw in the towel. Hed been dropped from a record companys roster. His songwriting contract was expiring. He had a new baby, a mortgage and two car payments to make, and nothing looked promising on his musical horizon. For five years hed been trying every way he could think of to make it in Nashville, and all he had to show for his efforts was a broken dream. Jason signed with Broken Bow Records. This just shows how committed Jason is to his career, to never just give up, or forget about it, but to keep on pushing forward with it. This shows his fans and family that he will never quit or give up, just to stay strong and keep their heads held high.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

United States Race Issues :: Racism Race Preudice Essays Papers

United States Race Issues The arrest of a Ku Klux Klan member who in 1964 killed two young black men, Charles Eddie Moore and Henry Hezekiah Dee, represents a minor attempt to close the books on a wrongly-dismissed civil rights case. Although this act took place over 40 years ago, the current case shows that race issues are still very much a part of our society. The issues are no longer black and white either. With an increasing number of Hispanics in the United States, the racial quilt has become more complex, which has been of special interest to me in my studies of Spanish language and culture. The Los Angeles Police Department has reported increased violence in recent years, much of it attributed to Hispanic and black gangs fighting each other. We cannot passively watch how these issues play out, but must instead find solutions to live together. In my opinion, the assumption that all races are now on a level playing field and have been since the Civil Rights Act leads many Americans to strongly oppose any thing that seems to unfairly, according to them, favor one race over another, such as affirmative action programs. As a Michigan resident, I unfortunately witnessed the passage of Proposal 2, banning affirmative action through what was called the Michigan Civil Rights Initiative, modeled after the California Civil Rights Initiative, both of which were led by Ward Connerly. Many Americans think voting against â€Å"reverse discrimination† sounds good, not taking into account the fact that white Americans have had many more years to accumulate wealth and gain better positions in society, while minorities have only had that opportunity for a couple decades and often times still face discrimination. I learned a lot about affirmative action and other race issues as a student in a class called â€Å"Race and Politics,† a class in which Mr. Connerly as well as members of the local chapter of the NAACP came to visit and speak. Discussions of race often reached nervous quietness in my class, something I think is common when members of different races come together to talk about it. We stumble all over trying not to offend each other or say something that might be taken offensively. In her book It’s the Little Things: Everyday Interactions That Anger, Annoy, and Divide the Races,† Lena Williams describes how members of all races innocently bother each other without knowing it. One example is how white Americans say they don’t â€Å"see color† in order to say race is not an issue to them.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

From Taco Bell to Tanzania Essay example -- Graduate Admissions Essays

From Taco Bell to Tanzania I lived until the age of 18 in Lacey, Washington, a small town made up mostly of the strip malls and Taco Bell fast food restaurants that line Interstate 5 from Portland to Seattle. Very few of my high school classmates left this town, and instead moved back into the service industries and lower rungs of state bureaucracy where their parents had worked before them. For those of us who wanted to leave, the only routes, at the time, seemed to be the military or higher education. Since, by middle school, I had been tracked into college prep courses, I assumed that I would go to college but did not know where or what to study. In our garage, my grandfather kept back issues of National Geographic dating to the 1920's. The summer before starting high school, he paid me to dust them and it was then that I discovered something called "Anthropology" which, when studied, appeared to lead to a more interesting life in a more interesting place. For my Freshman Physical Science course's "SCIENCE CAREERS DAY," I wrote "Anthropology" down as my career goal, though I knew nothing at the time about the discipline besides the name. I likewise chose a college which I knew nothing about - Lewis and Clark in Oregon - because the brochure mentioned that there were several dozen overseas programs available through the school. Though I could have gone to India, Indonesia, Ecuador, Australia, Korea or many other countries, I decided to apply for Kenya because the year before I had read a book about nomads and the program included a unit on nomadic pastoralism and ecology. After rereading this book much later, I discovered it to be an incredibly sappy, melodramatic and condescending ... ...conflicts in other areas of social life. In the summer of 1994, I had the opportunity to travel to Tanzania on an SSRC Predissertation Grant to begin to establish affiliation, research clearance and possible fieldsites. I have also made contacts at the district level with officials and academics in the area. Though I already speak Kiswahili, the national language of Tanzania, I also have made arrangements to study Maa, the language of the Kisongo Maasai and WaArusha who live in the district in which I will be working. I am looking forward to working in Tanzania not only because of its political stability and unique history as a nation, but also because of the opportunity to generate information about children and education in pastoral communities there, a topic which is still under-researched despite the restructuring of national curriculum in recent years.

Friday, October 11, 2019

Body Image in Society

Destiney McCraney Ms. Wills English 100 19 September 2012 Go Against the Grain Remodel your nose, show your chest, and bend over for the camera. This is basically the message society is sending to women today. If you conform to the world’s idea of what a woman should look like then you will be accepted. In the two articles â€Å"The Pitfalls of Plastic Surgery† by Camille Paglia and â€Å"The Beauty Myth† by Naomi Wolf, the way women have responded to the message from society is discussed from both perspectives.Wolf is clearly against women's confinement to societal pressures. She reveals that there is a â€Å"secret underlie poisoning our freedom,† referring to the way women focus on appearance and fitting in (Wolf 10). Paglia's argument focuses on the extent of women using plastic surgery to become what they believe society wants them to be. She writes about the way women have made themselves their own â€Å"works of art,† taking plastic surgery t o higher levels in the industry. Wolf emphasizes the way women have changed their values over the years.She makes an emotional appeal by concluding that the â€Å"contemporary ravages† are â€Å"destroying women physically and depleting us psychologically†(Wolf 19). Over time, society has influenced women to confine themselves to what the world believes is beauty instead of embracing the power of being a woman and focusing on their place in the economy. The first image portrays a woman who is perfectly proportioned yet still uncomfortable with her body. The woman in the ad has her hands behind her back as if she’s nervous about people seeing her in the bikini she’s wearing.The light blue color of the background symbolizes renewal instead of the sadness that would be portrayed from a darker blue; losing weight creates a brighter future. The bend in her leg reveals her shyness as she looks towards the weight loss product, feeling like she has to use it in o rder to be confident. The fact that she isn’t comfortable after she has lost 25 pounds and is wearing a black bikini reveals the extremes that our society force us to go to in order to be accepted.If it isn’t one part of the body, it’s another. The phrase â€Å"jealous exes† is used to draw attention to the product giving a perspective on what women feel is important these days. Just by looking at this ad it is implied that most women want to make all their exes jealous, not become a CEO of a company. The ad as a whole, pin points how the world thinks women should want to look. Why 25 pounds and not 5? Why is she still uncomfortable? The pressure from society creates this never ending cycle of conformity to the ideal woman.It seems as though women today have shifted their attention to issues that shouldn’t matter. Many women are concerned with â€Å"physical appearance, bodies, faces, hair, clothes,† bringing attention to the relationship be tween â€Å"female liberation and female beauty. â€Å"(Wolf 9) The pressures of society have influenced women to believe they all need to resemble one another. The media always tends to focus on skinny models, light-skinned women, long-haired women, and tall women when they refer to the word â€Å"beauty. These are the types of women that are scarce in our society because everyone obviously isn’t born that way. Most of our society is filled with women who have curves, like the plus sized models of today, or who have darker skin compared to the famous models with fair complexions. The spotlight on the preferred image of women in society causes them to think they have to be just like that vision in order to be accepted. In the image I have chosen, there are two different women who both won a beauty contest in different areas of the world.One woman is skinny with long, blonde hair in her face, while the other has curves and dark, shorter hair out of her face. The woman with curves is more conservative with her outfit and her make-up. She is wearing a bikini, but covering her bottom with a wrap and her make-up is more natural. The skinny woman on the other hand is showing off her body in a bikini and her make-up is on heavier than the other woman’s. The women in our society today feel like they can’t achieve certain goals in life without being the world’s ideal women, but according to this image, it is possible.The plus sized woman in this image is a great example of an empowering figure for women in our society because she is confident with her body and makes the statement that it is okay to love you the way you were born. Who is to blame for women thinking they constantly need to change themselves to fit in? Why aren’t women comfortable with their bodies? When people like the media are repeatedly beating you up for being yourself you tend to change if you are not confident. The media exploits women through ads, magazines, a nd â€Å"pornography† and the women of today are allowing it to happen (Wolf 10).There are only a hand full of women who aren’t ashamed to go against the grain and be proud of who they are. In the photo of J-woww, the magazine is criticizing her for moving her leg a certain way causing her cellulite to show. She is wearing a pink bikini that shows off her tattoo and tanned skin. The magazine points out that she can’t cover up every flaw with tattoos and tanning oils implying that she is full of imperfections. In the eyes of many other people she has a nice body, but according to the media she needs work done. As long as she is comfortable with her body their opinion doesn’t matter right?Wrong. Many people look at this in a magazine and agree because society has taught us to judge one other the same way they judge us. In the words of Wolf, these obsessions are â€Å"poisoning our freedom,† women in earlier days worked hard and sacrificed for women t oday to have the power and money they have, but the way women today feel about themselves leaves them â€Å"worse off than our unliberated grandmothers† (Wolf 10). Society has conned women into focusing on beauty and acceptance instead of being empowered and useful in the economy.Women are usually projected as sex symbols that should always look a certain way. It is rare to see a woman in a movie or magazine with a professional outfit on that isn’t showing too much skin. A woman wearing a nice skirt with a blazer and a shirt buttoned all the way up is a great icon to other women because it shows how you don’t have to have your chest out and be exploited to be important. The image portraying a professional woman flexing her arms like a man would shows how women can have power without conforming to society’s expectations.The way her mouth is open gives the impression that she is excited to be in the position she is in, and comfortable with herself as a woma n. The workplace has more women in it now than it did years ago, and more women need to start taking advantage of this new opportunity. Over the years women have been influenced to confine themselves to the ideals of society. Women are constantly judged and criticized forcing them to change themselves when there was no need to. There are not many women who will stand up and go against what the world thinks, embrace the power of being as woman, and take heir rightful place in the economy. If there is going to be a change it has to start with the women not the men, the media, friends, or society as a whole. â€Å"If we are to free ourselves from the dead weight that has once been made out of femaleness, it is not ballots or lobbyists or placards that women will need first; it is a new way to see. (Wolf 19). Works Cited Paglia, Camille. â€Å"The Pitfalls of Plastic Surgery. † Harper’s Bazaar (May 2005). Print Rpt in Convergences. Boston: Bedford/ St. Martin’s, 20 09 Print Wolf, Naomi. The Beauty Myth. New York: Harper Collins, 2002. Print

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Functions, Values, and Roles of the Nurse Practitioner Essay

I have read and understand the plagiarism policy as outlined in the syllabus and the sections in the catalog relating to Indiana Wesleyans Honest/Cheating policy. By affixing this statement to the title page of my paper, I certify that I have not cheated or plagiarized in the process of completing this assignment. If it is found that cheating or plagiarism did take place in the writing of this paper, I understand the possible consequences of the act/s, which could include expulsion from Indiana Wesleyan University. Function, Values, and Roles of the Nurse Practitioner When contemplating the roles and values of the nurse practitioner it is necessary for the student to first exam the career path and scope of the nurse practitioner. Nurse practitioners are registered nurses who have advanced education and training in a health care setting. They are practitioners with advanced degrees such as a Master of Science in nursing and are licensed as registered nurses who have practiced as a registered nurse for a minimum of at least two years. Most nurse practitioners early in their course work will identify a specialty area of nursing that they have an interest in doing research in. Determination of this specific area is usually influenced by what area of nursing the student has experience working in as a registered nurse. Other times, it is influenced by the illness of someone close to them or a family member. Cardiac health and transplantation is an area that this student wishes to pursue as a specialty area. My interest has been piqued by personal experience in this area with a family member. This student believes that this specialty area values the health and well-being of all mankind and that research is rewarded as a basis for providing new and upcoming trends in this specialty area. Through early detection and treatment of cardiac related illness, healthcare providers in this area strive to prevent diseases such as congestive heart failure from progressing to advanced stages requiring even further cardiac intervention. It is the belief of this student that to become a competent urse practitioner one must value wellness, enjoy the human race, and have the true desire to care for others. Race, socioeconomic status, and educational level of the client are not priorities when determining plans of care for patients. The nurse practitioner must remain non bias in her personal beliefs and put the needs of the patient first at all times. This ensures nonbiased holistic complete care is provided which is valued by all nurse practitioners and sought by all health care consumers. . Due to recent changes in government programs such as Medicare and Medicaid coupled with the sky rocketing cost of health care many Americans are being forced to change the way they access health care. As the face of health care moves away from the traditional hospital setting to other sites within the community, the role and function of the nurse practitioner has moved to the forefront of the health care system. Nurse practitioners practice in a variety of settings that include community health centers, primary care clinics, hospital departments, physician offices, and walk in clinics. Accessibility to care is one criterion that has created popularity among the role of nurse practitioners. One area of interest among nurse practitioners that has become popular is the concept of family care specialization. Family care nurse practitioners value providing care to the entire family and are often viewed as the physicians of long ago. The care given by these practitioners is family based care, and not limited to one criterion such as age or gender, thus reminding people of how physicians practiced many years ago. Family nurse practitioners are licensed in the same way as other nurse practitioners but usually have a broader clientele base and work mainly in primary care clinics and not in specialty areas. Another quality the nurse practitioner must value is the ability to recognize the limits of their knowledge and expertise within their scope of practice. This recognition allows for collaboration with another health care provider to take place and ensures holistic problem focused healthcare is made available to all patients. When discussing society’s perception of the nurse practitioner, it is this student’s belief that there is an overall general acceptance in the role of the nurse practitioner. Nurse practitioners have been made to earn the respect of their profession. During the early development of this career, nurse practitioners were originally viewed by some members of society as want to be physicians. This perception has changed within the last ten years and has mainly been influenced by the decrease in the number of general practice physicians. The increase in the number of baby boomers has also created the need for more medical providers thus helping to create further awareness and acceptance among the role of a nurse practitioner. Furthermore, recognition of nurse practitioners by third party insurances, in covering care provided by nurse practitioners, has also encouraged the use and popularity of nurse practitioners. When asked about society’s perception of the nurse practitioner, it is this student’s belief that there is an overall general acceptance of the role of the nurse practitioner. However, acceptance of this role in the medical field has not always been the norm. Nurse practitioners have been made to earn the respect of their profession and were originally viewed by some members of society as substitute doctors. It is this student’s belief this perception has changed within the last ten years due to the decrease in the number of available general practice physicians. The increase in the number of baby boomers requiring more medical attention has also created the need for more health care professionals thus promoting the role of the nurse practitioner. In conclusion, it is this student’s belief that nurse practitioners are competent medical professionals who value disease prevention, wellness, and patient education. All nurse practitioners strive to provide thorough patient care regardless of the area of specialty they practice and will remain strong advocates for change and stability in America’s health care system. Nurse practitioners have the ability to change the landscape of modern medicine and will continue to meet these challenges presented before them to ensure the continued growth and development of the practice of the nurse practitioner.

John Lennon: An Inspiring and Peaceful Performer Essay

John Lennon was one among many inspiring and peaceful performers of his time. Lennon first began to perform with his first band, the Quarrymen, named after his high school the Quarry Bank School, at the age of sixteen. This was the year 1956, after World War II. His hometown was still recovering from the aftermath, both physically and emotionally. Lennon’s big musical break happened when he joined the Beatles, around 1960. At this time, his hometown celebrated popularity for its â€Å"Merseybeat sound† (Edmondson xvi). John Lennon broke away from the Beatles and started his own solo project in 1969. His solo career focused on antagonizing the modern Vietnam War waging on. John Lennon motivated people to live serenely through his music. John Lennon’s songs became very famous for their political and peaceful encouragement. â€Å"All You Need is Love,† was written in 1967 while Lennon was still performing with the Beatles. The song became popular due to its straightforward and clear message of love and peace. The song also poked fun at nations overrun by propaganda. â€Å"Give Peace a Chance† was also a song released by John Lennon as part of his solo career. The song was written in 1969, during the Vietnam War. John Lennon and his wife, Yoko Ono, wrote it at their Bed In for Peace, where they would stay in bed for a week to protest the Vietnam War, with the intention of making it an anthem of peace. Finally, â€Å"Imagine,† one of Lennon’s most famous peace anthems, was released in 1971. â€Å"Imagine† became renowned as being the opening and main track of John Lennon’s album, â€Å"Imagine,† and for speaking out against violence and war. The song announced to t he world a positive message about picturing a period of peace and what the world would be like without conflict. Acclaimed for spreading a bulletin of harmony, John Lennon’s songs were and are still considered enlightening. John Lennon’s life contributed greatly to his musical success. â€Å"John Winston Lennon was born October 9, 1940 in Liverpool, England.† (Edmondson xi) Liverpool was a city where â€Å"from the time of the Civil War, ocean liners traveled between Liverpool and the US on a regular basis, sharing music, stories, and culture† (Edmondson xvi). American sailors brought their music to Liverpool, introducing artists such as Elvis Presley, Little Richard, Chuck Berry, and Carl Perkins, therefore influencing John Lennon and the Beatles. The American music inspired Lennon to write songs with the same classic rock and bluesy feel. During his time, Liverpool was still a city recovering from the aftermath of World War II. The city was still filled with crumbled buildings and economic challenges, â€Å"a quiet middle-class neighborhood† (Edmondson xi). For this reason, John Lennon’s music was not recognized until he performed in another, busy, bustling city with the Beatles. Lennon attended the high school Quarry Bank School. Here, he and his classmates formed their first band, the Quarrymen, which in turn inspired John to take a larger step in his musical career. John Lennon’s musical achievements have been a result of his growing-up in Liverpool. John Lennon and his music became a historical figure in peace and serenity. Lennon desired for his music to become legendary so that his message of love and passion to the world would be delivered. Lennon made sure that his music was not only aimed at common civilians of the time, but also government officials of many countries. He felt that the governments were caught up in spending their money and lives on fighting wars and telling lies to their people to reassure their safety. Lennon spoke out against propaganda through many of his songs, including â€Å"All You Need is Love.† Although John Lennon was not able to change laws or the thinking of government, he and the Beatles did manage to help fuel the Hippie Era. This was a time when ordinary citizens, mainly teenagers, would try to rebel against all figures of authority including parents and politicians to spread their message of cessation and embracing nature. It was the â€Å"hippies† that were crazed in the Beatl es and also wanted their moral to be noticed. Lennon’s songs, rather successfully, were written so that the world would try and consider thinking about unity in their society. Effects made by John Lennon are still seen in the world around everybody. Lennon is still widely known as a political activist and musician. Because the Beatles were able to gain so much popularity around the world, John Lennon still had fans when he broke away from the band to start on his solo singing career. Today, it is a rare occurrence to find someone who has never heard his name or doesn’t know who he was. Sings John Lennon in his celebrated song, â€Å"Imagine,† â€Å"Imagine there’s no countries, it isn’t hard to do; Nothing to kill or die for, and no religion too; Imagine all the people living in peace.† In these lines, Lennon points out that if there were no society, there would not be violent wars. Many people agreed that acuteness and weapons would have been limited, if not never used, if humans did not develop into changing the earth for their own greedy purposes. â€Å"In 1985, to commemorate what would have been John’s 45th birthday, Yoko [Ono] arranged to have 2.5 acres of land in Central park named ‘Strawberry Fields’ in John’s memory (after the song ‘Strawberry Fields Forever,’ written by Lennon). The land is just across the street from the Dakota, and includes a large round mosaic with the word ‘Imagine’ in the center. Fans often leave flowers, candles, and other memorabilia in the space to honor John† (Edmondson xxii). Even today, John Lennon’s music has affected many perspectives of how humans are living life and interacting with each other. John Lennon was able to inspire many artists. After he and the Beatles performed in America, they started what is known as the â€Å"British Invasion.† British bands inspired by the Beatles during the British Invasion including the Rolling Stones, The Kinks, and the Animals were all the rage. All of a sudden, American and English teenagers could not get enough of the British bands. Multiple musicians were able to gain familiarity with classic rock thanks to John Lennon. John Lennon’s political activism did not necessarily sit well with some parts of society. Especially because of â€Å"Give Peace a Chance† and his bed-ins for peace, the Nixon administration conflicted against him and attempted to have his residency from the United States taken away from him. Not only his stern idea for harmony, but his use of heroin had a fraction of society frown upon him. Additionally, his image didn’t improve in the best way when a terrorist organization was discovered to have a name similar to a title of a song by the Beatles. The group, called Revolutionary Force 9, questioned the Beatles for their coincident song title, â€Å"Revolution 9.† Finally, on December 8, 1980, Lennon was murdered by someone who supposedly seemed like a crazed fan. The probably mad citizen murdered John outside his New York City home on December 8, 1980. John Lennon wasn’t socially accepted by everybody in the world. John Lennon and his written music made dissimilarities in the world and the thoughts of its people. Without him, many musicians, including those from the British Invasion, wouldn’t have been motivated to play their music. The Beatles truly popularized taking a European twist on American rock music. Lennon has supported protesting peacefully. Therefore, citizens who sing â€Å"Give Peace a Chance† at their protests in order to speak out against the government would probably not exist without John Lennon. Plus, not many halcyon songs would sound like the â€Å"Imagine† we have come to love. John Lennon has been an influence musically and politically to the world. Works Cited Edmondson, Jacqueline. John Lennon: A Biography. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood, 2010. Hammet, William. â€Å"John Lennon’s Political Activism.† (Online) Date written unknown. (Visited: April 11, 2011)

Wednesday, October 9, 2019

Blockbuster Organizational Failure Research Paper

Blockbuster Organizational Failure - Research Paper Example At the same time, it also created numerous challenges in the market place regarding competitiveness, innovativeness as well as sustainability, which has greatly influenced company sustainability in many sectors. Focused on a similar notion, this paper will entail critical analyzes regarding the failure of Blockbuster LLC, which was formerly recognized as Blockbuster Inc. Overview of Blockbuster Organization Blockbuster is a global retail chain, which offers a vivid array of video games, home movie and rental services for DVDs and VCDs at reasonable price to its discriminating global customers. Besides, the organization is also dedicated to provide its customers with adequate product choices and unique purchasing experiences. Currently, Blockbuster is operating with more than 2,500 retail stores spread worldwide. Being an American MNC, the company owns its maximum number of retail stores in the US, apart from Europe, Asia and Australia. The primary objectives of the company over the y ears have been to provide a world class entertainment experience to the consumers with a vivid assortment of movie and game genres, serving to around 90 million people all around the world (Blockbuster, 2013). Irrespective of its success since its establishment, with the increasing pressure of competition in the global platform, the company had to witness a decline in its revenue structure. It was in the year 2010 that the organization filed for bankruptcy and was consequently acquired by Dish Network (Almeida, 2011). Analysis of the Organizational Failure Factors In order to analyze the reasons behind the failure of Blockbuster, the following subject areas will be taken into consideration, which shall be helpful to obtain an in-depth understanding of the role played by various external and internal business environment factors to secure the sustainability of a company in the long-run. Competitive Advantage According to Michael E. Porter (2008) competitive advantage is a strategy of gaining benefit over competitors by offering customers high value through reasonable price, good product quality, product variety, innovativeness as along with other value added services (Porter, 2008). In the current phenomenon, competitive advantages are not only necessary to assist a company in obtaining larger market share, greater profit and brand value, but it is also necessary to assure long-term leadership position of the company, in the modern era. However, when studying the incident of Blockbuster’s failure, it can be observed that the most significant aspect of competitive advantage is to guarantee the sustenance of a company, apart from the aforementioned benefits. It is in this context that apparently, due to its business model limitations, Blockbuster was in a competitively disadvantageous position. The industry context can be accounted as responsible in this regard, to a large extent. The current market structure of the entertainment industry tends to be highl y volatile, where both the suppliers and the customers possess high degree of bargaining power, majorly due to the availability of close substitutes. Additionally, with frequent occurrences of forward and backward acquisition and mergers, Blockbuster also had to witness the threat of new entrants. Hence, given the limitations of the business model followed by the organization in terms of ill fit with external environmental changes, rigidness to adapt innovative ideas and cost as well as time intensive characteristic, the organization failed to preserve its

Tuesday, October 8, 2019

Journal Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 93

Journal - Essay Example His demise was so painful that whenever I think of him I shed tears. 3. Death of my idol. I am the biggest fan of Michael Jackson. His music is both entertaining and inspirational to me. His death was one of the biggest shocks for me. It took me several days to accept that he had passed on. I was very depressed. I felt like I had lost a part of me. 4. The strange kid in school. There was this quiet girl that was surrounded by mystery and creepiness. Apart from wearing dark clothes, she was also a loner and enjoyed moody songs. One day she collapsed in class and was rushed to hospital. We later discovered she had deep cuts on her thighs and hands. At first we thought it was a case of parental abuse. However, bizarre knives and other sharp objects were confiscated from her room. 5. A fish and a coin. I love fishing. One day, my father and I went fishing during the holidays. Basically, it is always my father who catches fish. However, on this particular afternoon, none of us was successful. As the evening approached, I felt my fishing rod shake. I pulled it instantly and shockingly, a fish bigger than the palm of my hand was writhing and begging for mercy beside me. The shock in my father’s eyes was priceless. As we opened the fish, guess what we found- A $25 cent

Sunday, October 6, 2019

Doubt Movie Review Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Doubt - Movie Review Example The film is set in 1964 at St. Nicholas school, a Roman Catholic School in the Bronx, New York and most of its students are children of Italian and Irish immigrants. They would have great faith in their Church and would never question or doubt anything about mother Church. In the movie, Father Flynn (Philip Seymour Hoffman), a young priest, delivers an important sermon on flagging faith which creates suspicions in Sister Aloysius (Meryl Streep). In his sermon, Father Flynn concentrated on the nature of doubt and noted that doubt, like faith, can be a unifying energy. Sister Aloysius, the strict principal of the school discusses the sermon with her fellow nuns and asks them to find the reasons behind the behaviour of Father Flynn for preaching about doubt. Following this, Sister James (Amy Adams), a young and naive teacher, grudgingly reports a private meeting between Father Flynn and the school's only black student to Sister Aloysius which creates awful suspicion in the principal. Th erefore, one of the central scenes in the movie is the one in which the cheerful, fair-haired Father Flynn preaches a sermon about sharing doubts with others in the community. Father Flynn's appeal to the importance of doubt becomes relevant in the context of the Roman Catholic School in the Bronx, where most of the students are children of Italian and Irish immigrants who would have great faith in their Church and never question or doubt anything about mother Church. However, in a reflective analysis of the theme of doubt in the film, it becomes lucid that the students' trust to the church is because of their nave faith and some doubt in faith would have been preferable, as such doubt of mother Church was possible back in 1964. Through the story of a confrontation between the priest and the nun at a Catholic school in 1964 New York, the film Doubt by John Patrick Shanley establishes the importance of doubt in deepening the nave faith in Catholic Church. Father Flynn, who is the chaplain at St. Nicholas Catholic school in the Bronx in 1964, is a strong believer in the winds of change that are sweeping through the country with integration and through the Catholic Church with Pope John XXIII. Through the character of Father Flynn, the film emphasizes the positive value of doubt in the life of a believer of the Catholic Church, and the winds of change that were sweeping through the Church in 1964 suggests the possibility of a doubt of the mother Church. "He has an easy and relaxed manner with the kids; as a preacher, he enjoys shaking his congregation up. In the opening scene of the film, he speaks about the positive value of doubt in the life of a believer: 'Doubt can be a bond as powerful and sustaining as ce rtainty. When you are lost, you are not alone.'" (Brussat and Brussat, 2009). Therefore, the character of Father Flynn makes a vital point by suggesting the positive value of doubt in the life of a believer and the winds of change that were sweeping through the Church suggested by Father Flynn allude to the possibility of a doubt of the mother Church in 1964. The students at St. Nicholas Catholic School, who are children of Italian and Irish immigrants, have great faith in their Church and would never question or doubt anything about mother Church. In fact, their trust in the Church is too nave and there is great positive value of

Saturday, October 5, 2019

Request for Proposal for Software Upgrade Project of Boardman Essay

Request for Proposal for Software Upgrade Project of Boardman Management Group - Essay Example The purpose of this Request for Proposal is to provide the potential consultants with information to assist them in formulating their proposals. It is hereby advised that it is mandatory for every bidder to respond against all the requirements mentioned in this RFP. If the bidder has nothing to share against a requirement they can mark â€Å"Not Applicable† in front of the requirement. This paper makes a conclusion that Boardman Management Group has established the business goal of achieving a standard business support system across all the businesses across the group and hence has decided to upgrade all the software versions to Word 2007 on Windows Vista. Following are the requirements of this Project which the chosen consultant would need to fulfill. You are most welcome to add to the requirements if you wish to undertake additional deliverables that are useful to the project. You are requested to provide complete details of the new requirements justifying their need. The proposals are invited from the consultants who have successfully completed at least three similar projects pertaining to migration of desktop systems to Windows Vista and Word 2007 in a networked environment. The project board shall compare the details of the PDF format and the hard-copy format. Any discrepancies between the two formats would result in rejection of the proposal after informing y ou. In such cases, you would be required to resubmit the proposal. Discrepancies found after second submission shall result in disqualification of the bidder.

Friday, October 4, 2019

Corporate Social responsibility assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Corporate Social responsibility - Assignment Example Nowadays unethical activities can no longer be hidden, as every activity against ethical CSR is investigated, communicated and broadcasted through internet by the media (Kakabadse, Rozuel, & Lee-Davies, 2005). However, if the other side of the coin is analyzed, it can be seen that that due to recent scandals, many reforms in business environment have been noticed. Firstly, the financial performance of the organization has improved (Galbreath, 2009). It has be analyzed by DePaul University that after the financial crisis and economic downturn, companies are engaging themselves into ethical business, which is revealing better financial performance as stated by S&P 500 Index (Silberhorn, & Warren, 2007). The operating cost has reduced due to CSR initiatives because companies are more concern about reducing their rate of emission, cutting down waste and by selling the recycled materials. To enforce ethical CSR activities and corporate governance in companies after the Enron scandal the A merican government also introduced Sarbanes-Oxley Legislation (Cromb, 2008). Answer 2 Stakeholders are the people or groups of people who have major interest in the growth and profitability of the organization. However, the interest of every stakeholder towards the organization is not the same. So based on the level of interest the stakeholders are segregated as primary and secondary stakeholder. The primary stakeholders are those who get the most affected by the positive or negative outcome or performance of the company. However, this differentiation is done for ethical decision-making. According to Figure 1, Freeman depicted a view of the primary and secondary stakeholders (Brockett, & Rezaee, 2012). Figure 1: Freeman's Structure for Primary and Secondary Stakeholders Source: (Colle, 2005) The segregation is done on the basis of fiduciary duties, legitimate interest towards the firm, invested capital and efforts. As can be seen in Figure 1, the primary stakeholders are shareholder s, suppliers, customers, employees and government. All these individuals and groups have financial and personal interest associated with the organization. They have direct contribution towards the positive or negative growth of the company, so they are the stakeholders who should be ethically receiving first priority in profits and decision-making. The secondary stakeholders are the competitors, society, local and global communities, etc (Colle, 2005). They are not indirectly related to the organization, but neither do they contribute towards the profitability of the organization nor they receive a share of the profit of the company (Ayuso, Rodriguez, Garcia, & Arino, 2007). Answer 3 The sets of rules, polices, principles and processes set by the company to monitor and control the company and its functions is known as corporate governance. The corporate governance also helps the company by providing guidelines for fulfilling the goals and objectives of the company. It is also respon sible for safeguarding the stakeholder's interest. Corporate governance assists the companies to lay down the foundation for planning our CSR activities for the company because unless and until the operational functions are ethically conducted, CSR will reap no result. However, stakeholders of the company have significant role to play in this case, as it has been discussed further in this section of the study. There are approaches around the world based on which the role of the shareholders in corporate

Thursday, October 3, 2019

Abortion Essay Example for Free

Abortion Essay The moral debate about abortion has focused on either the rights of the fetus or the rights of the mother. If the fetus has rights then abortion is immoral and not permissible. If the fetus does not have rights, then abortion is morally acceptable and permissible. If both the mother and the fetus have rights, then either the rights of the fetus have priority, or those of the mother have priority. If that didn’t complicate matters enough, we have those who argue that some fetuses have moral rights while others do not, making abortion sometimes morally permissible and sometimes morally impermissible. The purpose of this essay; to argue that abortion is either always morally permissible or it is always morally impermissible, it cannot be both at the same time. There are two main arguments concerning the morality of abortion. One relates to the moral status of the fetus – whatever that may be, and the other relates to the woman’s right to choose what happens to her body. The moral status of the fetus seems to determine whether or not it has a right to life. On the other hand, the woman’s right to choose raises concerns about whether or not abortion is always justified. Some arguments surrounding the abortion debate focus on the permissibility or impermissibility of abortion based on how the fetus was conceived – mainly rape. Pregnancies as the result of rape seem The main focus should be women who are unwillingly pregnant, because generally speaking they are the ones seeking abortions. There are rare exceptions, such as a woman who is willingly pregnant, but aborts the pregnancy because it is putting her own life at risk, but that is an entirely different argument and will not be discussed here. Instead, we will focus on unwanted pregnancies that are not endangering the life of the woman and how the moral permissibility of aborting these unwanted pregnancies should not rest on how the fetus was conceived.

Economic Benefits of the Commonwealth Games: Manchester

Economic Benefits of the Commonwealth Games: Manchester Economic benefits that Manchester gained by hosting the Commonwealth Games 2002 This paper discusses Manchester’s hosting of the 2002 Commonwealth games, and how it was used as a catalyst for urban regeneration. It discusses the theory and history behind hosting Mega events.  The rationale behind cities bidding for mega events has shifted. They bid not only to raise the image of their city on the world stage, button use the new facilities as a catalyst for urban regeneration. The Manchester case study is drawn from the local council websites and reports published during and after the event. This gave an insight into the long term economic gains for the city. The paper concludes that the hosting and the urban regeneration were successful for Manchester. This success has promoted other cities to bid for Mega events. 2.0 Introduction There are three advents that are described as mega events, the Football world cup, the Olympic and Commonwealth games. These events are held every four years, with cities around the world bidding to host them. For the purpose of this paper the discussion will be on the Olympic and Commonwealth games. The main Focus will be on Manchester hosting of the2002 Commonwealth games. Mega events as steeped in tradition, they are a platform for host cities to show what they can do. Cities plan for them years in advance, putting their bid forward so they can succeed on the world’s stage. When a city is successful in a bid, there are other cities that are disappointed. This paper discusses Manchester’s successful Commonwealth games bid after two failed Olympic bids. When a city hosts a Mega event it is in the public eye, everybody remembers the spectacle of the opening and closing ceremonies. What is not so public is all the planning behind the scenes, committing resources to the success of the games. These resources are committed at an early stage; the bid has to be viable to be considered. The rational for hosting games has shifted from the prestige associated with the attention of the world’s media, to a tool for regenerating rundown areas of the host city. Therefore the planning of the venues has shifted from temporary buildings, to long term facilities for the local communities. Some cities hosting mega events are looking at the long term usage for the new facilities after the event, in the past a lot of these buildings were built as temporary structures and pulled down shortly after the closing ceremony. This is viewed by some commentators as waste of resources, with prolonging the life of these buildings cities, can benefit long after the games are finished. This shift has attracted new cities to bid for Mega events, with the justification that it will lead to economic growth both short and long-term. The benefit can be two fold, raising the image of the city and regenerating a rundown area. Although not all host cities have been successful at obtaining growth, some are still repaying the debt that was run up to host the games. The resources that each city has ploughed into holding these prestige games are immense. To succeed they require the backing of local residents, council, sports providers, grants, the government and their agencies. This should be incorporate at the planning stage to increase the chance of a successful bid. The value to local residents of a city hosting a mega event is immense in economic terms. It is not only the new facilities that can generate income, if the games are a success, the city can attract tourism long after the event. The games cannot be viewed in isolation of the sporting stage, there is the build-up to the bid, the planning of hosting the games and the long term value they van add to the city. All these factors make up a successful mega event bid. Manchester spent a long time planning for the games. This is illustrated in the time line that appears in the appendices of this paper. This was not an easy ride, as financial problems affected the plans. Manchester overcame these and held the 2002 Commonwealth games. 3.0 Aims and objectives The aim of this paper is to assess the economic impact of cities hosting mega event; this will concentrate on the 2002 common wealth games held in Manchester. The objectives are †¢Ã‚  An in depth analysis of the history of mega events, with the resources and planning to host such an event   †¢Ã‚  An analysis of the economic benefits that can be gained and the disadvantages of hosting a major sporting event. 4.0 Methodology This chapter discusses the research methods used for the project and the rationale for their choice. It discusses methods that were not used, with justification of why they were not included.  Included is a critique of methods selected, and with hindsight identifies any changes that would have enhanced the research.   This paper critically evaluates the impact of the 2002 Commonwealth games on the city of Manchester. This paper will investigate the economic impact of a mega event and the subsequent urban regeneration. This will be compared to other host cities, both with the Commonwealth and Olympic games. Selection of the topic was stimulated and formed out of heightened publicity on the topic. The aim of holding the games was not only publicity for the city but to use it as a tool of urban regeneration. The nature of the research was discussed with colleagues and fellow students this not only added practical ideas and suggestions, it opened new avenues of thought.  This was the discussed with lecturers sounding out ideas, gauging opinions and clarifying the question.  Focusing in on the question was obtained by employing relevance trees, narrowing the research area.  This gave direction to the research, although with reviewing the literature this changed several times (Buzau, J. 1995).   Next, a research proposal was compiled, with the benefit of organising ideas and setting a time-scale for research.  Theoretically, the proposal would highlight any difficulties with the research question and access to data.  Creating a time-scale would focus on targets and meet deadlines in the completion of the paper.   The literature review, discussing theories and ideas that exist on the topic formed the foundation of the paper.  The findings from the research are then tested on theories for validity (Saunders, M. et al1997).  The literature review was challenging, there is very little academic research on the topic area. Most of the literature focused on individual’s performances at the games, and the impact of hosting the Olympic Games. This information proved relevant in understanding the justification for bidding for mega events. Journals and newspaper articles were the back bone for the review, together with internet sites and reports. Tertiary data sources, such as library catalogues and indexes were used to scan for secondary data.  This produced journals and newspaper articles, and Internet addresses.  With the amount of literature, it took time to sort out relevant material to the research.  Narrowing down the search Bell’s (1993) six point’s parameters was applied.  Applying key words that were identified in the first search produced relevant and up-to-date material (Bell, J.1993).  A limitation on the literature search was the amount of time to read all articles and books on the subject. Whilst reviewing the literature references to other publications were followed and reviewed.  Bells checklist on identifying the relevance of literature found was a practical method to reduce the amount of reading (Bell, J. 1993). A case study on the impact on the city of Manchester of the 2002Commonwealth games was chose to replace primary research. This would report the actual benefits gained by staging such a major event. There is a lot of information presented in articles on the benefits of hosting Mega games, but little on the problems.  Therefore a lot of information was rejected due to the bias of the content. Articles and web sites were used to form a picture of the impact. This would then be compared with the literature and previous host cities To produce primary data the success of a mega event proved to be vast task, taking a lot of time to produce results. Internal and external operations of several organisations, providers, spectators and competitors would have to be compared to reach any level of validity. Instead it was decide to review a case study. This was then compared to the literature review. 5.0 Literature Review This section will review all the relevant literature on mega events, including cities that have bid and hosted them together with the history of the games. The review will also discuss the rationale behind bidding and the benefits it can bring to a City who hosts an mega event. 5.1 Mega Events Mega events are regularly defined as special events, these have unique status. Hamilton, (1997) characterise these events containing similar features, including international dimensions, short-termed, and may be either a one-off occurrence or conducted on a regular cycle. From the literature, size emerges as a dominant distinguishing feature separating mega from non-mega events. Both the Olympics and the commonwealth games fall into this category, they are international, short termed and held on a regular cycle. They are held every four years, at different locations (Hamilton, L 1997:124). Sporting events are rapidly increasing in popularity as a means of attracting attention to particular geographic locations (Getz, 1998).Increasingly, cities are basing their marketing around Mega events(e.g. Manchester and the Commonwealth Games), in order to maximise the benefits to be achieved from event-driven tourism, sponsorship, and media exposure. Sporting events make up an important part of the overall Mega event industry. In reality there are a limited number of Mega sporting events that exist. This has led to fierce competition among cities to be successful in winning the business of playing event host (Getz, (1998) cited in  Westerner, H et al 2002:303). 5.2 Resources Required The size of an event can be discussed in four different ways. First is determined by the noticeable involvement of national and regional government authorities. Government agencies provide an event with the development of policies, infrastructure or making resources available supporting the attraction of events to major cities  (Westerner, H teal 2002). Higher technical competencies are required, such as advanced facilities, suitable event location and skilled personnel; these are directly related to size of the event. The demands placed on services provided by host cities to deliver an event is of superior quality when compared to other event types. The technical competencies must satisfy number of requirements. This includes the technical standards set by international federations pertaining to competition, non-competition elements (accommodation and transport) and personnel issues competition management, and personnel issues  (Westerner, H et al 2002). The higher competencies are a requirement for the event management team, made up of both bid and operational teams, it is composed of expert people capable of carrying out professional relations with event owners and organisers prior to and throughout the event as well as having the technical expertise to stage the event  (Westerner, H et al2002). The hosting City requires broad support from both direct and indirect stakeholders. Overall approval must come from the general public, government, (target) markets and other business sectors. The large amount of capital invested from the public purse in bidding for and staging an event, it is essential for strong community support for the process (Ernst Young, (1992) cited in  Westerner, H et al2002:305). 5.3 Planning for the Games International and worldwide events are more important now than ever before. In most countries major events are significant to all levels of society and institutions, whether at local or national level. Sporting events dominate large sections of the press, television and radiobroadcasts. Therefore event management has become an industry in its own right, with both specialist organisations and individuals(Torkildson, G 2005). The decision making process for the bid will develop a long term strategic plan (Johnson G, , Scholes, K 2004). This strategy is the direction and capacity of an organisation, (i.e. the committee forth games) which achieves advantages through its configuration of resources within the changing environment. The strategy answers both the questions where do you want to go? and how do you want to get there?  The first question is answered when the bid is accepted and the second is answered when the strategies are planned (Mullins L2005). Planning is the first stage of implementing the development of the city for the capacity to hold the games. Managers are required to step back to look at the environment, competitors, market place and review both the internal and external strengths and weaknesses. A SWOT analysis will focus the managers on both internal and external factors that can affect a new strategy. The host city must recognise its strengths and utilise them, and reduce weak areas through planning (Groucutt, J. teal 2004). Managerial decisions are made to identify what is required to implement the new strategy. What are the new resources are required? I.e. Property, finance or employees, and how will the city gain these resources?  Then the risk should be assessed for its long term value to the host. Strategies should not only be considered on how they will affect existing resource capabilities, but also if needed new resources and how they will be controlled. The costs to the host should be weighed against the long term gains, and if needed it can be reviewed, accessed and amended accordingly (G, Johnson K, Scholes, 2004). Mega Events are a dynamic and multi-dimensional phenomena, there are at the same time, urban events, tourist events, media events and international global events. They are the subject of collective corporate recourse, with action in each of the sections. Therefore amulet dimensional approach is required in the planning and managing of the games. This requires multi-disciplinary team based approach(Torkildson, G 2005).   5.4 Marketing Kilter et al (1993) identify several target markets to which place marketers direct their attention. These include visitors’ athletes, officials, spectators and the media, residents and workers, business and industry, and export markets. The focus of sporting events is on the visitor segment, including business and non-business visitors. Business visitors include persons who travel to a place for meetings, conventions, to inspect sites or to buy or sell a product. Non-business visitors include tourists who travel to see the place and travellers who are visiting family and friends. Individuals travelling to particular destination to attend the event or teams and participants attending events as well as organizing committees and such can also be categorized as non-business visitors (Kilter, P et al 1993). The increase in the competition and the globalisation has not only saturated the extent of competition in the markets but mainly saturated the target markets itself as argued by Brassington and Pettit (2003).This is mainly because of the fact that the high level of competition among the participating organisations in a given market segment has increased the product range leaving the customers with an endless variety of products to choose for satisfying their requirements. This level of saturation has also increased the need for further development in the market in order to achieve competitive advantage as well as sustainable growth in the business (Brassington, F and Pettit, S 2003). Therefore mega events will if correctly marketed stand alone as a once only product. This product offers a unique entry into a market, there is little comparative competition, although all sport and leisure will compete for their market share. Although a Mega event is no normally at the same level as the existing competition. This approach is accomplished through the geographical spread either nationally or internationally by the host (Lynch, R 2003). The domestic and/or international media, coupled with the selling of broadcasting rights, are important characteristics of mega events The support of the media prior to or during an event guarantees exposure and consequently raises world-wide awareness of the event and host city. The 2000 Olympics in Sydney generated in excess of $1.3 billion in revenue from broadcasting the Games, indicating the substantial financial returns for event owners, organisers and the host city brought about by media support for the event ( Westerner, H et al2002). 5.5 Sponsorship Corporate sponsorship of sports and other events is one of the fastest growing forms of marketing communications used to reach target audiences. The rate of growth in sponsorship expenditures is greater than for traditional media advertising and sales promotion. Corporate spending on sponsorship worldwide was estimated to grow 12 present in2001 (Roy, D and Cornwell, T 2003). Sponsorship is viewed as a means of avoiding this clutter by enabling sponsors to identify and target well-defined audiences in terms of demographics and lifestyles. Linking a brand with an event via sponsorship enables firms to gain consumers attention and interest by associating with events that are important to them. Despite the increased use of sponsorship to reach market segments there has been little research on the impact of sponsorship on consumer behaviour(Roy, D and Cornwell, T 2003). While sports sponsorship activities range from providing athletes with uniforms to funding entire stadiums, the basic principle behind such sponsor ships appears to be their proposed ability to increase brand equity by means of enhancing brand image. There are several key goals associated with corporate sponsorship of events such as (1) enhanced brand image via associations with positively perceived events; (2)increased goodwill via perceptions of corporate generosity; and (3)elevated brand awareness due to increased exposure (Miyazaki, A and Morgan, A 2001). The high prices paid for Olympic sponsorships reveals that at least some organisations find these efforts to be worthwhile. This is illustrated by comments from top corporate officials that the Olympics are â€Å"the most important marketing opportunity of the decade† and management suggestions that this investment will heighten global recognition and increase revenue (Miyazaki, A and Morgan, A 2001:9). 5.6 Tourism In the 1980s and 1990s, political, economic, and technological developments that led to the global economy became a feature of the environment within which cities compete for economic growth. This trade in goods and services has become increasingly open and internationally competitive; cities had to compete with cities from around the world for investment capital, businesses, and tourists. Cities such as New York, London, and Tokyo have become â€Å"global or world† cities in the urban hierarchy. These cities contain the largest variety of cultural and entertainment facilities of the highest quality, such as museums, galleries, opera houses, theatres, and concert halls (Burbank, J et al2002) Therefore other cities are a disadvantage when competing for tourism. The pursuit of hosting a mega-event is a mechanism for economic growth. This strategy relies on obtaining a single event large enough to be seen as a way to generate future economic growth. Many events can bring tourists and attention to a city, but the mega-events sufficiently large that it creates a single focal point and timeframe for completing event-related development. It is also noted that stadiums and sports teams are luxuries that financially strapped cities can ill afford; therefore holding a mega event can provide the city with these facilities for the future (Burbank, J et al 2002) The number of tourists to an area where a mega event is due to take place increases.  Individuals are drawn to destinations because of omega (sporting) event rather than the region itself. For example, tourism estimates of visits to Sydney between 1997 and 2004, as direct response to the Olympic Games, have been set at 1.7 million. Actual visits for the period during 2000 have been estimated to be 20 percent of this total (Forecast, 2001). Arising from the growth of the tourism industry has been an emphasis on place (or city) marketing and promotion and the emergence of mega sporting events to support and enhance this promotion. Place marketing represents the techniques utilised by certain organisations to raise the awareness of their particular destination to specified target markets.  Promotional objectives relate to capturing the attention of international visitors and to providing information in an endeavour to entice them to travel to a specific destination (Moutinho, L and Wits 1994). 5.7 Attendance of Events A standard set of economic factors would be expected to affect demand for attendance. Price of admission and, more generally, the opportunity cost of attendance (including cost of travel, car parking, food and beverages at the venue, and programme), would be predicted to be negatively related to attendance. Income of the potential audience at sporting contest, and size of population in the potential market for contest, would be expected to be related positively to attendance. Availability and price of substitutes would also influence attendance. Some substitutes might be considered â€Å"direct†, such as the live broadcast of the event. Other substitutes will be â€Å"indirect†, for example, attending a different sporting event or contest; or other types of entertainment alternatives such as theatre or movies (Borland and  Macdonald, R 2003) Macroeconomic factors could have an impact on attendance such as threat of unemployment. Although it has been suggested that attendance at sporting events may constitute a social outlet for unemployed persons, therefore the attendance is higher as the rate of unemployment increases (Borland, J and  Macdonald, R 2003) The infrastructure of the venue has a direct impact on attendance to the events. The quality of viewing, the facilities at the stadium, the quality of seating; the impact of adverse weather conditions; distance from contest and extent of vision to different parts of the sporting field. Catering and bathroom facilities can also have an impact(Borland, J and  Macdonald, R 2003) 5.8 Economic Benefits The national government’s involvement in bringing events to a city is on the increase. The level of spending dedicated to biding for an event demonstrates the strength of governments backing. This is to the detriment of the competition with other (cultural) activities undertaken by government and other interest groups. Openly supporting abide increases the pressure of accountability to the public and hence support will only be given, if it is clear that justifiable and measurable benefits for all stakeholders are generated by hosting the event (Westerner, H et al 2002). The economic activity associated with staging mega sporting event can create significant economic benefits for the host destination. Howard and Crompton (1995) defined the economic impact as â€Å"the net economic change in a host economy that results from spending attributed to sports event or facility†. Economic impact studies enable the quantification of the benefits to a community to be ascertained in order to justify the investment in the event (Howard, D and Crompton, J1995:55). The Olympic Games provide an obvious example of significant economic contribution by a mega sporting event. The 1984 Los Angeles Olympics made a profit of US$125 million with the Seoul Olympics exceeding that profit by a further US$50 million. Outcomes of this magnitude serve to encourage cities to bid for high status events (Law, C 1993). In September 1990, Atlanta won the bid to host the 1996 Summer Olympic Games. In spite of the approximately $2.5 billion price tag, the benefits derived from hosting the Olympic Games were expected to outweigh the costs. Positive media attention, construction of facilities and infrastructure, and employment increases were identified as the primary beneficial output of this massive endeavour. The cash in flow during mega games is relatively easy to identify, the legacy â€Å"of the games in terms of long-term benefits is more difficult to measure. The positive employment impact of the 1996 Summer Olympic Games, led to a 17% increase in long term employment in the surrounding area (Hotchkiss, J et al 2003). It must be noted at this point that not all events are successful financially. While focusing on the economic benefits presented by mega sporting events, there are significant financial burdens that such events place on host communities. This financial commitment to events often requires a degree of community assistance through public funding. The external benefits associated with mega sporting events enable this financial assistance to be classified as an investment, with clear reciprocal benefits to the host community (Westerner, H et al 2002). Once the mega-event policy is underway, extra-local interests become increasingly vital to a successful outcome. Hosting modern games requires the authority and cooperation of not only the host city, but other state and local governments and agencies as well. Moreover, the financial demands of the games require support from local public and private sources, but are increasingly dependent on multinational corporations and the government (Burbank, J et al 2002). Several global cities have had their fingers burned by over ambitious sports development plans. Sydney found itself in trouble finding permanent use for Stadium Australia. The Manchester bid, while ambitious, was also realistic. It already had the G-Mix Centre and MEN arena, Old Trafford and Maine Road football grounds. It has added to this the velodrome, an aquatics centre, Sport-city, and the City of Manchester stadium. These facilities are part of the long term regeneration, the aquatic centre has been appropriately sited for the city’s three universities; Sport-city is to become one of 10 regional centres of excellence in sport; and the stadium will be used jointly by Manchester City football club and community teams (Anonymous 2002). 5.9 Urban Renewal The Olympic Games are regarded as the world’s most prestigious sporting occasion. They are typical of mega events in that they are transitory, bring short-term international participation and attention and can have long-term consequences for the host city. There is considerable investment in both sporting facilities and the supporting infrastructure, although after the games these then become legacies to the host city.  The costs involved in hosting the Games are now so high that host cities can often only justify the expenditure when it is seen as leading to a major programme of regeneration and improvement (Essex’s and Chalked, B. 1997). Harvey (1989) has discussed that urban policies to compensate Forde-industrialisation have become more proactive and entrepreneurial often involving some form of interurban competition for jobs and investment. The use of ‘urban spectacles’, such as major sporting events, as a strategy for urban renewal are being seen as one of the main products of post-modern society This is also a means by which cities express their personality, enhance their status and advertise their position on the global stage. Urban politics have shifted to ales bureaucratic, more entrepreneurial and autonomous stance (Harvey 1989).  An example of these new urban politics is Manchester’s Olympic bids of the 1980s and 1990s, in which local government-based decision-making and bureaucratic politics were essentially replaced bay dynamic business leadership (Essex, S and Chalked, B. 1997). For the host cities there is important justification for bidding to stage the Games, particularly in recent years, the stimulus to economic development and urban regeneration. The event can promote economic activity as a result of the jobs created by the vast numbers of tourists visiting the city before, during and after the event. The construction of sports facilities can also play a role in programmes of urban renewal by, for example, introducing new sporting and recreational facilities into previously under-provided areas. On broader scale, preparations for the event can also provide a means of justifying new investment in transport infrastructure and in projects to enhance the city’s landscape and physical appearance (Essex, S andChalkley, B. 1997) 5.10 History of Mega events There are several games that are held on a four yearly cycle; these include the Olympics, Commonwealth, and the world cup. Each has grown in stature with more cities bidding for the right to stage them. The information below was extracted from both the Olympics and Commonwealth Games web sites. The first Commonwealth Games were the product of discussions and ideas shared over a thirty year period. John Cooper proposed sports and cultural gatherings for English speaking nations in 1891. In 1911 sport competitions were part of the Festival of the Empire in London, in which athletes from England, Canada, South Africa and Australasia competed (www The first games in Hamilton Ontario, Canada consisted of six sports, with around 400 athletes from 11 nations. The name of the games has changed frequently. The first four games were known as the British Empire Games. The name was changed to British Empire and Commonwealth Games for the 1954-1962 editions. From 1966 to 1974 the name British Commonwealth Games was used and from 1978 to the present the Commonwealth Games Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia hosted a very successful 1998 edition of the Commonwealth Games. The Queen’s Baton was carried to the stadium on an elephant and presented to Prince Edward by Malaysia’s first ever Commonwealth medal winner Kohl Eng. Tong, a bronze medallist in weightlifting from the 1954 games   The Olympic Games are steeped in history. Today, the Olympic Games are the worlds largest pageant of athletic skill and competitive spirit. They are also displays of nationalism, commerce and politics. These two opposing elements of the Olympics are not a modern invention. The conflict between the Olympic movements high ideals and the commercialism or political acts which accompany the Games has been noted since ancient times According to legend, the ancient Olympic Games were founded by Heracles son of Zeus. Yet the first Olympic Games for which we still have written records were held in 776 BCE (though it is generally believed that the Games had been going on for many years already). Approximately1500 years later, a young Frenchmen named Pierre de Coubertin began their revival. The revival of the ancient Olympics in 1896 attracted athletes from 14 nations. The largest delegations came from Greece, Germany, France and Great Britain. Winners were awarded a silver medal and an olive branch   To conclude the games are steeped in history and are a prestige event for any city to host. They can raise the city’s image on the world wide stage, thereby attracting tourism in the future. But an emerging factories they can be a catalyst for urban regeneration, therefore the value of holding the games can be immense to host city, if it is conducted right.   6.0 Case Study Manchester This section will present the facts of Manchester successful bid forth 2002 Commonwealth games. The information is from the City Council’s web site, reports and articles. The second part will pre