Friday, May 31, 2019

Personal Narrative- Contributing to Society Essay -- Personal Narrativ

Personal Narrative- Contributing to SocietyI am one of those people that youd probably term normal. I regard a normal school, I work at a normal job, I have a normal life. You wouldnt single me out on the street there is nothing remarkable about me, I am one of the many. So, what has someone like me got to say that would make any difference to this land? I havent fought the important socio-political battles of this century I havent done anything that will be recorded in the world annals. Yet, I believe that I can contribute towards a healthier society. We live in a world that has forsaken the value of small things and deems those who think like me, anomalous dreamers who will be left behind in the rat race. Well, so be it.I know I have to keep working and dungeon in thi...

Thursday, May 30, 2019

The Role of the Community in Artistic Endeavour Essay -- Islamic Grave

The Role of the Community in Artistic EndeavourImagine a gravestone n other(a) a metre in height on a large base with incised geometric vine patterns. An elaborately work collar with lotus motifs on a background pattern of a spiders web is found above this base. In the center of the stone, finely carved inscriptions of Sufi or Islamic mystic poems concerning finis executed in Naskh calligraphic style are framed in decorative panels reminiscent of Persian illuminated manuscripts. The poem reads Listen. Verily the homo is perishable, the world is not everlasting.Verily the world is like a Web woven by a spiderFlanking the inscriptions are elaborate floral motifs that protrude outwards and curl upwards, resembling wings. This whole arrangement is surmounted by a multi-tiered arrangement of forms symbolizing Mount Meru, the abode of Hindu gods, with the Muslim profession of faith or shahadah inscribed upon it. This stone is but one of several styles of a type of gravestones known as B atu Aceh (Type C, Appendix). Batu Aceh are a highly distinctive genre of early Southeast Asian Islamic gravestones manufactured in Aceh, North Sumatra from the late 13th century to the 19th century and exported to various breachs of the Malay-Indonesian Archipelago. They were elaborately carved and expensive, and were a mark of distinction, being reserved for the graves of royalty and other important or wealthy persons. Although produced to mark Muslim graves, they are peculiar in exhibiting motifs drawn from Hindu and Buddhist religious philosophy. In this aspect they belong to the wider tradition of syncretism in Southeast Asian art and culture, in its inherent disposal to combine or reconcile differing beliefs and traditions. Can Bat... ...s directly to innate aesthetic ideals, the harmonious combination of Hindu/Buddhist, Islamic as well as indigenous elements in Batu Aceh not only proves the resilience of the underlying autochthonous culture and tradition, but points also t o the creative synthesis and adaptive flexibility expressed by their anonymous carvers. Works CitedOthman bin Mohd. Yatim. Batu Aceh Early Islamic gravestones in Peninsular Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur United Selangor Press, 1988 Bougas, Wayne A. Some Early Islamic Tombstones in Patani In JMBRAS vol. 59 part 1 1986 Best, David. The Rationality of Feeling Understanding The Arts in Education. capital of the United Kingdom The Falmer Press, 1992 Hall, D G E. A History of South-East Asia. London Macmillan, 1985 Bourassa, Stephen C. The Aesthetics of Landscape. London Belhaven Press, 1991 Last updated 24 June, 2003

Wednesday, May 29, 2019

Child Development Essay -- Parenting Raising Children

Final Draft Throughout the world, it can be seen that members of different cultures raise their children in such a way that they can be productive as a responsible, mature members of society. It is the pargonnts responsibility to mold them into a productive individual. Parents often try to shape the child into what they believe is best for that child. Sometimes, the childrens education does not con family to the ideals of other cultures. It can also be seen that gender plays a big role in the development of these children. The years in which children mark to be aggressive, or not, is prior to the age of five. I will try and associate the factors of aggression and child development to portray whether or not it influences the aggressiveness of that culture.First of all, a definition of the variables to be discussed is at hand. In defining aggression, we run into problems with the cross- heathenish variations between cultures. A positivist approach considers actions that cause pric e to another--for example, murder or punches--to be clear examples of aggression in any cultural context. The relativist on the other hand tends to think on terms of the cultural or situational context of actions. Certain actions may not be actually aggressive but viewed in a different /way /nature/. For example, when punches are thrown in horseplay, they are restrained in their severity. Therefore, they are not aggressive in nature.When employing aggressiveness, different venues are often used in the hardiness of social conflict. These strategies include verbal insults or physical abuse, like murder or assault. Whether or not an individual chooses to be direct or mediate/,/ depends on their preference. One may choose the direct approach and co... ...n is that they may have impossible expectations of their children. They have a tendency to live their lives through their children and labor them too far. Also, the child is defiant or constantly demanding in their eyes. They have s trong urges to hurt and may have acted on those urges to some extent.Conflicts arise with parents passim life. It is important to learn to deal with these conflicts in a manner that is acceptable to the society. From the day a child is born up until puberty, a child is fuddled with at least one if not both of the parents. Conflicts usually start during the twelve to seventeen year old period. A separation from the parents in the form of friends being more important than them promotes and is even catalytic in conflict confrontations. These confrontations range from a quiet withdrawal from the parent to raging arguments on any issue.

Comparing Dignity in A Lesson Before Dying, Jane Pittman, and Of Love a

Dignity in S byhern Society in A Lesson Before destruction, muniment of Jane Pittman, and Of Love and Dust The ante-bellum Southern social brass put blacks in a low economic and social class and limited their pursuit of happiness. The aristocracy firmly held blacks in emotional and spiritual slavery. Cajuns, Creoles and ugly whites maintained a low status in high society, which frustrated them because they felt they should be superior to blacks and equal to whites. Racism was a base of southern society and a hope to improve life and gain respect. Ernest J. Gaines grew up in Southern Louisiana and his aunt Augusteen Jefferson taught him the art of living with dignity (Current 201). In The Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman, the main character, Jane, narrates her life that spans from the Civil War to the 1960s. She portrays the lives of black people fighting against the stigma of social inferiority in order to live out their dreams. Of Love and Dust depicts rebellious radic al characters striving for new standards of equality in the reformation of a small traditional community. A Lesson Before Dying shows Grant Wigginss and Jeffersons personal battles toward reforming themselves, and their communitys battle to earn self-respect. Living in subordination compromises freedoms of socio-economic mobility. Gainess characters rebel by fighting against suppression to achieve deserved rights and privileges. They achieve dignity through the struggle to hold onto the honor won from society. . Ernest J. Gaines describes people surviving within the social system at the same time as they outdo it to find dignity and freedom from prejudices. Living in subordination compromises freedoms of soci... ... Yearbook, 1994. New York Gale, 1995. Estes, David C. ed. Critical Reflections on the Fiction of Ernest J. Gaines. Athens University of Georgia, 1994, 1-29, 89-123, 139-157, 250-264. Gaines, Ernest J. The Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman. New York Bantam, 1971. _ ____. A Lesson Before Dying. New York Vintage, 1993. _____. Of Love and Dust. New York Vintage, 1967. Graham, Judith, ed. Ernest J. Gaines. Current Biography Yearbook 1994. New York H. Wilson, 1994, 200-204. Larson, Charles R. End as a Man. Chigago Tribune. May 9 1993, 5. Rpt. in coetaneous Literary Criticism Yearbook, 1994. New York Gale, 1995. Senna, Carl. Dying like a Man A Novel about Race and Dignity in the South. The New York propagation Book Review. August 8 1993, 21. Rpt. in Contemporary Literary Criticism Yearbook, 1994. New York Gale, 1995.

Tuesday, May 28, 2019

correctional officer Essay -- essays papers

correctional officerCAREER RESEARCH REPORTThe career I have chosen to engage after graduation is a Correctional Officer.Correctional Officers have been around for a very long time and were designed to clasp major offenders off the street after they have been arrested by the Police. The offenders are put in a holding cell at a Pre ladder Centre awaiting their court date. Correctional Officers are a very important part of the Justice System because it keeps high profile criminals off the street and locked up even before they are proven innocent or guilty. The Correctional Facility in many ways is a lot like a jail, from what I saw when I toured the new Pre Trial Centre in Port Coquitlam. There are large thick metal doors to lock them in at night. Each cell contains a small bed, a desk and shelf, a sink and a toilet. The one thing I found interesting was at the new Pre Trial Facility in Port Coquitlam each cell had a window, which I thought was a little too much for criminals yet I guess they are innocent until proven guilty. As this is a NEW facility and it has some nicer things than the older centres.A typical day for a Correctional Officer would be the preparing of inmates for court appearances. They also receive new inmates to the facility brought in by the Sheriffs Department. Each new inmate must be photographed and fingerprinted upon immediate arrival to the Pre Trial Centre. They are then stripped and fully searched inside and out. With that ...

correctional officer Essay -- essays papers

correctional get throughicerCAREER RESEARCH REPORTThe career I fetch chosen to pursue after graduation is a Correctional Officer.Correctional Officers have been around for a very long prison term and were designed to keep major offenders off the street after they have been arrested by the Police. The offenders are put in a holding cell at a Pre Trial Centre awaiting their court date. Correctional Officers are a very important part of the Justice System because it keeps high profile criminals off the street and locked up even before they are proven innocent or guilty. The Correctional Facility in many ways is a gage like a jail, from what I saw when I toured the new Pre Trial Centre in Port Coquitlam. There are large thick coat doors to lock them in at night. Each cell contains a small bed, a desk and shelf, a sink and a toilet. The one thing I shew interesting was at the new Pre Trial Facility in Port Coquitlam each cell had a window, which I thought was a little likewis e much for criminals but I guess they are innocent until proven guilty. As this is a NEW facility and it has some nicer things than the older centres.A typic day for a Correctional Officer would be the preparing of hustles for court appearances. They also receive new inmates to the facility brought in by the Sheriffs Department. Each new inmate must be photographed and fingerprinted upon immediate arrival to the Pre Trial Centre. They are then stripped and fully searched inside and out. With that ...

Monday, May 27, 2019

Geomatics : Levelling

Topic 2 Levelling Aims -Heights, datums and bench marks -Levelling equipment -Field procedure for trainling -Calculating reduced trains -Sources of error in levelling -Other levelling regularitys Levelling how highschool argon defined Engineering surveying involves the measurement of three quantities lifts, angles and aloofnesss. Levelling it the process of step heights. It is possible when levelling to measure heights with an accuracy of millimetres Heights nates in addition be measured apply total stations, handheld lasers and GPS devices.However, levelling offers an inexpensive, simple and accurate method for measuring heights, and it is widely used in construction sites. Any method of measuring the heights of proves above or below the ground using an agreed datum. These datums or reference dits be present in all construction sites and has an arbitrary height assigned to the taper. Most construction sites lead have several of these benchmarks, and if they have hei ghts based on an arbitrary datum, they are cognise as Temporary Bench mark. Heights Heights are defined using horizontal and vertical quarters.The figure below shows a plumbbob suspended at point P, the direction of gravity along the plumb- disputation defines the vertical at point P. A horizontal or level line is any line at right angles to this For site work, any horizontal line can be chosen as a datum for heights and for levelling. The height of a point is measured along the vertical above or below the chosen datum. The height of a point relative to a datum is known as its reduced level (RL). On most construction sites there is a permanent datum. The horizontal line or surface passing through this, with its height, becomes the levelling datum.The height of the datum can be arbitrary, a value often used for this is 100. 000m. This is chosen to avoid any negative heights occurring. Any reference point on site which has had a height assigned to it is known as a bench mark. For m ost surveys and construction work, several bench marks would unremarkably be established by levelling from the datum. If heights are based on an arbitrary datum these are known as Temporary Bench Marks or TBMs. Curved Surfaces Level (or horizontal) lines are always at right angles to the direction of gravity. The direction of gravity is generally towards the centre of the earth.Over large areas, as the primer coat is curved, level surfaces will also be curved. For these, a height difference is measured along a vertical between two curved level surfaces. When surveying over a large area, a curved level surface of zero height has to be defined. This has been established by the hired gun Survey, this is called the Ordnance Datum (OD). This corresponds to the average sea level measured Poolbeg or Malin Head. Heights based on these are know as OD heights. The levelling mental faculty Levelling involves measuring vertical distances with reference to a horizontal plane or surface.To do this, a levelling rung is studyed to measure vertical distances and an instrument known as a level is required to define the horizontal plane. Many types of staff are used with varying lengths and different markings. The E-type face is commonly used in the UK and Ireland. This can be read directly to 0. 01m and by estimation to the nearest mm. The staff must be held vertically a circular pass off is sometimes fitted to help this. Automatic Level 1. Focusing screw 2. Eyepiece 3. Foot screw 6. Tangent screw 7. Circular bubble Automatic Level 4. crosswise circle 5. Base plate 8. Collimator ( business deal) 9. Object lensThe main features of the cathode-ray oscilloscope 1. Object lens 2. Focusing screw 3. Focusing lens 4. Diaphragm 5. Eyepiece The intent lens, cogitate lens, diaphragm and shopping mall piece are all mounted on an optical axis called the line of collimation or the line of sight. This is an imaginary line which joins the optical centre of the determination lens to the centre of the cross hairs. When looking through the eye piece of the surveying telescope, a set of lines called the cross hairs can be seen. These are used for taking measurements from the staff. These cross hairs are etched on a small sheet of glass known as the diaphragm.To adopt the telescope work, the image of the staff is brought to a focus in the plane of the diaphragm using the focusing screw. The eyepiece is rotated so that the cross hairs are in focus and its focal point is also in the plane of the diaphragm. When looking into the telescope an observer will now see a exaggerated image of the levelling staff focused against the cross hairs. Parallax Parallax occurs when the focusing screw and the eyepiece is done incorrectly. This condition can be detected by moving the eye to different parts of the eyepiece when reading the staff. If different readings are obtained then parallax is present.To remove parallax, hold a sheet of paper in front of the object and adjust the eyepiece so that the cross hairs are in focus. Then remove the sheet of paper and bring the staff into focus using the focusing screw. Once again check for parallax by moving your eye around the eyepiece. If parallax is still occurring repeat the adjustment procedure. The compensator In an automatic level, the compensator is mounted on the telescope next to the eyepiece. It will only work when the instrument has been levelled to within abtaboo 15 of the vertical using the foot screws and circular bubble.The function of the compensator is to ensure that the line of sight viewed through the telescope is horizontal even if the telescope is tilted Tilting levels Tilting levels use a spirit level instead of a compensator to establish a horizontal line of sight. When the bubble is centred the sprit level will be horizontal. When the bubble is off centre the axis will be tilted. By attaching a sprit level to the telescope such that its axis is parallel to the line of sight a horizonta l line can be set. This is done by using a tilting screw, when this is rotated the telescope is tilted a small amount in the vertical plane.The tilting screw is adjusted until the bubble is centred. Digital levels Digital levels are homogeneous in appearance to automatic levels, a horizontal line is established by a compensator and this is done by centralising a circular bubble with the foot screws. The main difference between this and other levels is that the staff readings are taken and recorded automatically. When levelling, a special bar-coded staff is sighted, and there is no need to sight this staff as the level will do this automatically and display the measurement. It can also display the horizontal distance to the staff.The advantages of digital levels are that observations are taken without the need to read a staff or record anything by hand. Introducing this automation removes two of the most common errors when levelling, reading the staff incorrectly and writing down th e wrong value in the field book. The on-board computer also calculates the heights required so that the possibility of making a mistake is removed. This makes the digital level much faster to use. Laser levels Laser levels contain a rotating laser which defines a visible horizontal plane from which distance to the ground can be made and then the height can be determined.Using a level The following steps are taken when using a level to measure heights 1. Set up the tripod 2. Ensure the top is level 3. Push legs firmly into the ground 4. Attach level 5. enjoyment foot screws to centralise the circular bubble 6. Test to see if the compensator is working 7. Remove parallax Once the level is set up its important that the line of sight is horizontal. When the foot screws have been used to centralise the circular bubble, it is assumed that the compensator has set the line of sight to be horizontal.However, most levels are not in amend adjustment and when levelled their line of sight is n ever exactly horizontal. If the line of sight is not horizontal when the instrument has been levelled, the level has a collimation error. As most levels will have some level of collimation error, a method is required to check if the error is within acceptable limits. This is known as a two-peg test. This needs to be conducted when using a new or different level for the first time and at regular intervals thereafter. Two peg test Stage 1 On fairly level ground, two points A and B are marked a distance of Lm apart.In soft ground, two pegs are used, on hard surfaces nails or paint may be used. The level is set up midway between the points at C and carefully levelled. A levelling staff is placed at A and B and staff readings S1 (at B) and S2 (at A) are taken. The two readings are S1 = (S1 + x) and S2 = (S2 + x) S1 and S2 are the staff readings that would have been obtained if the line of collimation was horizontal, x is the error in each reading due to the collimation error, the effect of which is to tilt the line of sight by angle ?.Since AC = CB, the error x in the readings S1 and S2 will be the same. The difference between readings S1 and S2 gives S1 S2 = (S1 + x) (S2 + x) = S1 S2 This gives the true difference in height between A and B. This demonstrates that if a collimation error is present in a level, the effect of this cancels out when height differences are computed provided readings are taken over equal sighting distances. Stage 2 The level is then moved so that it is L/10m from point B at D and readings S3 and S4 are taken.The difference between readings S3 and S4 gives the apparent difference in height between A and B. If the level is in everlasting(a) adjustment then S1 S2 = S3 S4 However this is not always the case and that an error term (e) needs to be estimates e = (S1 S2) (S3 S4) per Lm If the results of these tests show that the collimation error is little than 1mm per 20m (or some specified value). If the collimation error is greater t han this specified value then the level has to be adjusted. This is normally done by the manufacturer or a trained technician.Example Readings obtained from a two peg test carried out on an automatic level with a staff placed on two pegs A and B 50m apart are Staff reading at A = 1. 283m Staff reading at B = 0. 860m With the level position 5m from peg B (L/10) Staff reading at A = 1. 612m Staff reading at B =1. 219m Calculate the collimation error of the level per 50m of sighting distance Solution S1= 0. 860M S2 = 1. 283M S3 = 1. 219M S4 = 1. 612M e = (0. 860 1. 283) (1. 219 1. 612) per 50M = (-0. 423 (-0. 393)) = -0. 030M per 50M Exam Question 2007 (5 marks)

Sunday, May 26, 2019

Battle Of The Somme

The Battle of the Somme started in July 1, 1916 and lasted until November 1916 between France and Germany. History considers this interlocking as the bloodiest of all difference of opinions in macrocosm War I. In the article The Battle of the Somme, the historical perspective of the Battle is outlined. This battle traces its origins from the many severe losses that the French had been experiencing at Verdun to the tocopherol of Paris.The British Allied High Command, taking sympathy with the French losses, decided to attack the Germans to the north of Verdun thereby driving the Germans away from the Verdun battlefield.The battle at the Somme started with a weeklong artillery bombardment of the German lines where an estimated 1. 7 million shells were fired. By November 1916, when the battle ended, the British had lost 420,000, the French lost tight 200,000 men and the Germans 500,000. (The Battle of Somme) Many historians agree that the neither the French and British nor the Germ ans won in this costliest battle to date. For many years, those who led the British campaign deem received a lot of criticism for the way the Battle of Somme was fought especially Douglas Haig.(The Battle of the Somme). This criticism was based on the many lives that were lost in the battle and the insignificant gains that either parties got in exchange for those massive losses. The British and French captured only a little more than five miles (8 km) at the deepest point of sixth sensewell short of their original objectives. The British themselves had gained approximately only two miles and lost active 420,000 soldiers in the process, meaning that a centimeter cost about two men.(Battle of Somme) What does this tell us? There are no victors in wars, only losers. This fact bears tremendous implications not only on westward civilization but on all civilizations that wage wars against one another. BIBLIOGRAPHY Battle of the Somme. Wikipedia. 2000. (http//en. wikipedia. org/wiki/B attle_of_the_Somme) Sheffield, Gary. The Somme, Cassell, 2003. The Battle of the Somme. 2000. (http//www. historylearningsite. co. uk/somme. htm)

Saturday, May 25, 2019

Inclusive Growth of India: a Study of the Informal Sector in India Essay

Indias transmit 1990s economic ingathering has made it angiotensin-converting enzyme of the worlds fastest growing economies in the world. Its gross domestic product ingathering puts of ab bring give away 9% in the last few years be historic onlyy unparalleled except by the neighbo ring mainland China. With the rapid growth rates, how ever, come new challenges and new pastimeions. One such challenging question concerns the spread of the benefits of growth cross guidances different segments of society. To ensure that growth has been head distri preciselyed, Indias Planning Commission has made Inclusive harvest-tide their explicit goal in the el regularth five-year plan. The concept of Inclusive Growth has dominated discussions across India.Its popularity has sparked intense discussions among politicians, economists, policymakers and the general public. In addition, Inclusive Growth has been the focus of studies by bilateral and multilateral aid agencies such as the UN, Wor ld Bank, Asian phylogeny Bank, Foundations such as the ICICI Foundation, NGOs, and Civil Society Organizations alike. However, Inclusive Growth should not be confused with Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSP). Despite all the attention that Inclusive Growth has received in the last few years, t present lacks a precise and agreed upon definition of the te rm.Overall, the literature is shared between two concepts whether the benefits reach the poor and whether the benefits reach the poor proportionately more than than it reaches the non-poor. By the first definition, India may postulate performed quite remarkably i n the last two disco biscuits, although the magnitude is hotly debated. By the second definition, Indias performance against comprehensive growth seems more lackluster. Gini coefficient indicates that income inequality in India has change magnitude from 0. 209 in 1980-81 to c flake out 0. 257 in 2005-06 both at an overall level as well in almost all f the state s both for urban and rude areas .There are evidences suggesting that growth in the blueer income states is relatively lesser than the growth in high income states. Not only this, but studies have shown that the rising disparity is also present at an intra-state level too. To address these challenges going forward, evidence suggests that there are a number of macro and little level interventions that are poverty reducing and th us conducive to Inclusive Growth. At macro level, there is little doubt about the receipts of the augmented Washington Consensus (Rodrik, 2006).At micro level, evidence suggests that improving the pastime factors will help accelerate poverty reduction reduction of inequality, not particular(a) to income inequality, access to public infrastructure and services especially health and education, access to markets, accountability and voice, good governance, and the persona of civil society organizations, women empowerment. Inclusive growth rump also be st udied as a clash between the promiscuous as the formal heavens. Various literatures are available in the following context by noted economists and policy makers.A firm stand to improve the condition of the thriftiness is subsided in the entrepreneurship sector of the country, which holds huge potential. The Indian frugality today boasts of many magnificent opportunities but sadly enough, not many of them are fully utilized. The entrepreneurship front of the country epitomizes such a condition. Liberalization of economy started by the PV Narasimha Rao regimen in 1991 and the Information Technology boom of the mid and late 90? s have ushered in dire changes and set the period for a wave of entrepreneurship taking India by storm.The capacity of Indians for entrepreneurship is substantial. However, the society and government have not been very encouraging towards entrepreneurship in India. The rankings of India have also been deteriorating in the recent years. From a rank of 2 in the field of Total Entrepreneurship Activity (TEA) according to the Global Entrepreneurship manageing Reports, Indias position has been slipping ever since and has reached a level rather close to the world average. In spite of the shortcomings, it ranked ninth in the survey of entrepreneurial countries by Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM).India ranks the highest among a group of countries in n ecessitybased entrepreneurship, which is associated with developing countries. Conversely, it ranks fifth from the bottom in opportunity -based entrepreneurship. Indians have entrepreneurial capacity. However the society and government are not very encoura ging towards entrepreneurship. To a large extent, the Indian society is risk averse. People usually seek secure and long -term trading, such as government jobs.The physical infrastructure needs to be improved. Social Attitudes, lack of take a leaking capital, inadequa te physical infrastructure and lack of government upport are major factors of hindrance. While the growth trends of India and China are similar, both had initiated different policies in their approaches. While China was mostly growing on FDIs, India was b uilding a rather self-sustaining flummox for growth as it concentrated on the institutions that supported private enterprise by building a stronger infrastructure for its development. The Government has encouraged entrepreneurship by providing dressing and also the facilities to succeed, particularly in the rural areas.One style of innovation that really works in a country as large and various as India, is grassroots innovation this includes inventions for a milieu that is quintessentially Indian. The middle-class Indian has been growing rapidly in context to the planetary economy. In an era of globalization, a middle class of 250million and rising can be considered a veritable gold mine. The G7 economies account for almost 67% of the global GDP at a market exchange rate and this has been the s cenario since 1965. Underpinning the performance of the G7, and indeed driving the global economy, is a large middle class.The midd le class is an ambiguous sociable classification, broadly reflecting the ability to lead a comfortable life. The middle class has played a special role in economic thought for centuries. It emerged out of the bourgeoisie in the late fourteenth century, a group that while derided by some for their economic materialism provided the impetus for an expansion of a capitalist market economy and trade between nation states. Ever since, the middle class has been thought of as the source of entrepreneurship and innovationthe beautiful businesses that make a modern economy thrive.Middle class values also emphasize education, hard work and thrift. Thus, the middle class is the source of all the needed in presents for growth in a neoclassical economy new ideas, physical capital accumulation and human capital accumulation. The role of Asia, who accounts for just les s than 1/ quaternate of the middle class population of the world, could boast of doubled figures of the same by 2020, accounting for around 40% of the global middle class GDP. With the exception of lacquer and Oceania, Asias rapid growth has not been drive by a la rge domestic middle class.The expansion of factors of production driving potential produce has happened without a significant middle class. Saving and education have been willingly undertaken even by poor households, in the face of large returns to such ac tivities in a globalized world, as well as by governments. Technology has been imported from abroad by corporations through FDI, imported machinery and participation in global supply chains. Thus with the American consumers retreating back after facing fears of a double dip recession now, it suits well for the emerging Asian economies like China and India to step up and fill the consumption voids.Within Asia there is significant talk of rebalancing towards domesti c demand (more specifically domestic consumption) as a way of sustaining growth in the face of potentially sluggish exports. But the policy prescriptions to achieve such a rebalancing are not easy. They involve creation of a social safety net, medical insurance schemes, and better public education services. In short, Asian consumption is tied in the minds of many analysts to long -term institutional changes. Given the difficulties of implementing such changes, it is hard to be very confident that this rebalancing will happen in the medium term.The lack of inclusivity is again clearly shown in the Indian scenario. The middle class consumption levels are far below the average global levels. There exist such disparities on the expenditure side repayable to the fact that the middle class is largely inactive in this process. Moving back to the production side of the economy, the retail industry in India has been showing tremendous potential amidst the bullish growth trends of the econom y as a whole. To prove this point, we see that the penetration of the organized retail sector in the US is about 85% while that in India is just about 8% (Velagapudi, 2011).The retail industry can be divided into registered as well as unregistered sectors. The unregistered sector, which usually includes all the small grocery shops, street vendors etc, accounts for over 93% labor force. Although as seen earlier, the value added to the SDP and consequently the GDP isnt even comparable to that by the organized sector. The initial target is to bring the contribution of the organized sector to 9-10%. Retail industry is also the 2 nd largest practice provider in India after agriculture.The penetration of organized retail will happen much faster in the coming go, even in degree and tier 3 cities, because of the changing demographic s of our population and a healthy rate of economic growth. With good underlying economic growth, increase in disposable income, increased awareness payable to penetration of broadband and mobile devices with internet accessibility, the demand for consumer goods will rise. With better systems and processes in place, all this is bound to function in increasing the penetration of the organized retail sector in India. The organized retail market in India is expected to grow to 14-18% by 2015 of the natural retail market in India from 8% in 2008.Its value is estimated to be around US$450 billion by 2015 (Mckinsey Reports). The BMI India Retail Report for the first arse of 2011 forecasts that the integral retail sales will grow to US$ 674. 37 billion by 2014, from US$ 392. 63 billion in 2011. The growing wealthiness with the middle-class in India, the population size and the big percentage of population being in 30s, makes immense possibilities for entrepreneurial growth in the retail sector. or so of the fastest growing segments of this industry are food & beverages, electronics and apparels.The consumer electronics segment is expecte d to grow at about 55% between 2011-2014, with most of the growth driven by demand for TVs, mobile devices and laptops and desktops. With changing lifestyles and habits, food segment is also expected to double to US$ 150 billion by 2025. Inclusive Growth A Review of Literature This section is a review section of the disproportionality between the registered and the unregistered manufacturing secto rs. The causes that have been suggested by various authors through their studies have been put forward with an aim to assemble and submit the registered as well as the unregistered sector thoroughly.The section starts off with the causes of differentiatio n between the registered as well as the unregistered sector and their differences in productivity , followed by how a thrust can propel the unregistered sector into the registered sector. This is followed by literature about the betrothal scenario in India for both the sectors and how there exists a large disproportionality. Finally the section ends with a study of the registered manufacturing sector and a study on the role of infrastructure in the economic developments.The growing divergence between the i nformal and the formal sectors, especially in the manufacturing sector can be seen as one of the major causes for lack of inclusive growth in the country. The publisher by Goldar, Mitra and Kumari shows us useful evidences regarding the same. The musical theme claims that the economic reforms of 1991 had a negative impact on the informal sector since import restrictions had been removed and the informal manufacturing sector started facing even more stringent competition from producers whose products were of a better qu ality.It shows evidences that the value added by the informal nonagricultural sector kept on falling even though the employment rate increased from 76% in 1983 to 83% in 1999-2000, consequently exhibiting a downward trend in productivity. Empirical data study suggests that the growth of employm ent in the informal manufacturing sector has always been higher than the employment growth rate of the total manufacturing sector (3. 3% over 3. 1% in 1961-87) which includes the period of Jobless Growth in the 1980s where the employment rate of the organized manufacturing sector was -0. %per anum.But when it comes to value added, the informal sector lags behind, which is the chief cause of serious concern of the Indian economy. Data trends show us that post liberalization, the value added by the informal manufacturing sector fell from 6. 1% (1980 -90) to 4. 89%(1990-2005). In this context, a paper by Sreepriya S. lays emphasis on the development of the informal sector and how government policy measures should be taken to increa se the productivity of the sector.The paper points out that in an economy which is labor abundant and is developing, the significance of the small -scale sector which is less capital intensive and generates employment for over 86% of the workforce of the cou ntry is of utmost importance. The informal sector constitutes a major constituent of the small sector industries in the manufacturing sector. The problem lies in the fact that 86% of the workforce only adds on 25% value to the economy, 20. 5% of the fixed capital and 16. 9% of the total output produced.A particular significant result in this context can be seen in the agricultural sector. A study by the NSSO shows us that even in 2009-10 around 67% of the rural population as well as 6. 7% of the urban populat ion is dependent on the agricultural sector even though it contributes to only 14% of the GDP. This further enhances the stand on the widening disparity amongst the distribution of income amongst the population. In a paper by Maiti & Mitra ( January 2011), the proposition is put forward that since the informal sector only caters to the local and regional demands and with ubstantial exposure to education and technical skills, the producers in the informal sector will be elevate d to the formal level.With this perspective, the paper looks into the supply push component of the informal sector across Indian states. But a paper by Chowdhury (EPW August 2011) on the employment structure of India suggests that that there has been a decline in the labor force participation rate (LFPR) for both rural and urban women in the NSSO surveys of 2004-05. This, he concluded, was due to the increased interest in attaining education for the women were the cause of the fall in LFPR.Similar is the explanation for the slow gro wth in LFPR for women through 2004-05 and 200910. But this explanation does not adequately relieve the employment scenario of the country. This is because the gap created by the fall in employment of the age group 15-24 due to the desire of attainment of education should have been filled up by the other age divisions. This brings forth the point that in order to attain inclusive growth the employment structure needs to be structured on stronger grounds so as to accommodate the growth as well as the metamor phosis of the informal sector.Another interesting paper by Rana Hasan shows how the Indian employment scenario is condensed in either small or large enterprises where the medium enterprises lose out completely. He suggests that the formal sector with la rge enterprises offers better perks and incentives but the layoff risks are much higher resulting in lesser job security. While in the case of the unregistered sector, it accounts for most of the total manufacturing employment. This contradiction, he explained, is due to the labor regulations which are in place within the country.A strong urge here is made to liberalize the labor market finally. Hasan used empirical and statistical data to show that 85% of the workforce of India is working in firms with a total workforce of less than 50. This suggests a strong implication that large enterprises are more productive and pay more to their workforce (as per statistics). Thus the domi nance of the work force in smaller informal sectors suggests that most of the workforce has to settle for a low wages as per comparisons.Rana uses the concept of economies of scale to explain the problem of the missing middle. He shows as to how the highly productive large sectors are usually more capital intensive, maintaining a very low labor to capital ratio while the other traditional industries like stuffs is more labor intensive. Hence since the textile industry employment rate is 12times more than that of the automobile industry it has a significant claim on the total emp loyment structure of the economy.As our economy is more dominated by industries like the textile industry rather than capital intensive automobile industry, we can see why the middle economy is still undeveloped. A study by pika &Kalita shows empirical evidences regarding the context of inclusivity of growth in the registered sector. The paper addresses the issue of declining labor intensity in Indias organ ized manufacturing in order to understand the constraints on employment generation in the labor intensive sectors.Using primary survey data covering 252 labor intensive manufacturingexporting firms across five sectorsapparel, leather, gems and jewelry, sports goods, and bicycles for 2005-06, they act to find out the factors which constrain employment generation in labor intensive firms. Their study shows several constraints in the path of employment generation in labo r intensive sectorsnon-availability of trained skilled workers, infrastructure bottlenecks, low levels of investment, labor rules and regulations, and a noncompetitive export orientation.They also shed light on the decade of jobless growth where the economy was witnessing an increase in output and value added in the manufacturing sector but there was no increase in the employment scenario of the sector. As per statistics, only 484,000 jobs were created in the registered factory sector between 1980-90. There are many a reasons cited amongst which it can be considered that maybe the difficulty in labor retrenchment post the job security regulations in 1970 which forced employers to shift to a more capital intensive mode of production.They also cited some other reason as the capital deepening technique adopted by firms which increased the real cost of labor in the 1980s. Their study also points out towards the inefficiency of the economic reforms in migrating the majority of the workforce from the unregistered sector to the registered sector. A mere 13% employment generation of the registered manufacturing sector after a decade of liberalization highlights the inefficiencies. This was not however the case throughout the decade.As per Nagraj, the initial years of the reforms showed us a growth in the employment of the registered sector but this boom soon turned bust as the momentum could not be sustained in the latter half of the decade. As per statistics, around 1. 1 million people of around 15% o f the workforce of the registered sector lost their jobs during 1995 2000. The problem of inclusive growth is again witnessed as we face a quest ion as to why the labor intensive section of the organized sector failed to generate employment potential despite good performances by some of these sectors individually.

Friday, May 24, 2019

Gutenberg’s Press and the Transition from Medieval to Modern

There atomic number 18 galore(postnominal) ideas and c at oncepts that facilitated the transition from the Medieval Era to a to a greater extent(prenominal) sophisticated, reincarnation society, but it can be argued that Johann Gutenbergs maneuver of the produce pressure sensation was the most grievous factor to this neuter in Europe. The creation of the press was no prosperous task for Gutenberg he was faced with many obstacles. However, once created, the press bene ableed multitude approximately the world for centuries and con derriereues to be a fundamental part of our society today. earlier the invention of the instilling press, platters were extremely expensive, limiting grooming to the very wealthy. Because only the upper class could afford to purchase books, education was a means of separating the grandeur from the lower classes. It was nearly im feasible for the less fortunate to move up in society since they could not educate themselves.The reason books were so pricey was repayable to the methods employed to create each page individu all in ally. For a scribe to copy an stallion novel by hand would take much application and many hours. A common method of producing copies was for cardinal man to read the original give voice by word, and a group of scribes would redeem each word as the reader said them. By this method, describes John Fontana in his wreak Mankinds Greatest Invention, one manuscript served as the witness of reproduction for many copies when the scribes finished written material the last of the readers orally presented words (13). Not only was this period consuming, but the much copies that were made, the more errors were made.Eventually, a method of creating copies with protrude such a high valuation reserve of error came about. People would hand carve stops of woodwind instrument with raised letter and superlative the pins with ink. Then they would place a sheet of paper on the block to make a copy. To make the process nevertheless more trying, they had to carve the garner and words clogwards so they would print correctly, and they had to make these earn get wind normal when reversed.Albert Kapr, in his book Johann Gutenberg The Man and his Invention, describes how a calligrapher had first to write out this text, which was traced as a mirror-image reversal on to a planed limewood plump and so cut out with a knife in such a way that the lettering was left as a raised excavate (21). This method is callight-emitting diode xylography, and while it was an improvement in that it reduced mistakes, carving a block of wood for each page to be printed was even more time consuming than writing the words by hand, and books remained as expensive as ever.Johann Gensfleisch Gutenberg, a goldsmith from Mainz, Germany, wanted to change all this. His idea was to replace the wood blocks with separate earn made of metal. One would be able to move the letters around to make words and sentences, and then reuse them. The key to this wise method was not as is generally believed, the discovery of the value of personal chattel example, for movable letters had been do itn and used for centuries, explains Fontana. It was the mechanism for making the slips (28). This type of notion press was, in fact, already being used in China, but the technology to create such a machine was yet to be discovered in Europe.In bring ining to build this machine, Gutenberg was faced with obstacle after obstacle. expert when he would think he might create mastered it, he would encounter another paradox to solve. The invention of typography was not, noted Theo DeVinne in his work The Invention of Printing, the result of a happy thought or of a flash of inspiration. It was not born in a day . . . it was thought out and wrought out (376). To begin with, he had two main concerns finding a device that would keep the letters in place, and making a press that would print clearly.Gutenberg soo n came up with a solution to the first of the two issues. He paid a carpenter for the use of his winepress, so as to have a suitable bed for a page of metal letters to rest on, and arranged the letters on one side of it (Fontana 22). He wanted to come up with a frame to hold the paper then when one was ready to print, they could twist a screw to press the paper up against the letters. The letters were to be created by pouring melted metal into a wander.Then Gutenberg came across several more problems. The first was the question of how to make all of the letters exactly the said(prenominal) thickness so that when they were pressed against the paper, they would print evenly. Also, he needed a solution for putting narrow letters on narrow metal bases and wide letters on wide bases. exploitation the same base for all letters would not only be windy in that it would waste space, it would also make the words look uneven, with divers(prenominal) sized spaces between letters. Regardless of the width of the character, each metal piece had to be the same height so the lines would not be crooked. DeVinne made the evince that if the types of one character, as of the letter a, should be made the merest trifle larger or smaller than its fellows of the same font, all the types, when composed, will show the consequences of the defect (52).Gutenberg came up with two brilliant ideas to solve the problems. In order to make all of the letters the same thickness, he made the mold the desired height and added extensions on the sides to catch any overflowing metal. That way he could make sure that they would not be excessively thick, and as long as he poured metal to the top, they would not be too thin. Once dried, this extra piece at the bum of the metal letters opposite to the part the prints called the face, was easily broken aside and smoothed before it was used for the printed page (Fontana 30). As for making the letters incompatible widths, he had to make an ad expert able mold. He first experimented utilise wood, and once perfected, he made one out of metal. He came up with a mold that consisted of two L-shaped pieces that could fit together, and slide support and forth to make the cover area larger or smaller.Here Gutenberg encountered further setbacks. The lead he had been using to make the letters was too soft-it was opinion unevenly after just a few pages had been printed. Gutenberg solved the problem of making the typeface hard sufficient to resist pressure by mixing the lead with parts of tin and a substance that acted like antimony, hardening the metal and preventing expansion or shoplifting while the metal dried (Fontana 30). It also took a lot of inquisitory to find ink that was the right consistency to leave a thin mold on paper. Should it be too thin, it would spread through and through the paper, and should it be too thick, it would clump and appear uneven.Upon fixing these problems, Gutenberg had come up with his first worki ng printing press. With it, he printed copies of the first, second, and third editions of the Donatus. However, few passel would purchase the pages because many considered his invention immoral, as they believed hand-written script to be a sacred art. Also, there were still problems with the press.The type face varied too much-the lines would go from thin to thick and back to thin again, and the ink did not stick to paper well. DeVinne tells us that judged by modern standards, the types are ungraceful the text letters are too sullen and black, and the capitals are of rude pull in, obscure, and too small for the text (421). The press itself took a lot of strength, especially when making eightfold copies. All of these parts needed improvement, so Gutenberg got to work. He created more defined molds and stronger metal letters, which allowed for thinner printed lines.In hopes of eventually printing the Bible, Gutenberg worked to create letters that would, when placed together, resem ble the handwriting of scribes. It was a diffi cultus task, but he managed to finalize pages of beautiful lettering, each having two columns. The only problem was that only thirty-six lines would fit on a page, and Gutenberg wanted to fit forty-two lines. Otherwise, the amount of pages to print the Bible would be much greater and more costly. If he had been only an ordinary dreamer about great inventions, believes DeVinne, he would have abandoned an enterprise so hedged in with mechanical and financial difficulties (416).It was around this time that Gutenberg met John Fust, who offered to help finance his project if they could form a partnership. Gutenberg agreed as he was greatly in need of a means of paying for new equipment to make a forty-two-page press. DeVinne reports that these small types were quaint they were never used, so far as we know for any other work (406). This was most likely Gutenbergs greatest mistake, because when Fust did not get a diligent return on his mon ey, he sued Gutenberg for almost all of his equipment, including the new printing press. This was a set back from which Gutenberg never recovered, and though his invention greatly benefited many, he died a poor man.The printing press made a dramatic tint on European culture in many ways. One main(prenominal) way that it affected society was to bring about a high take of individualism than had been before experienced. As Marshall McLuhan noted in his book The Gutenberg Galaxy The Making of Typographical Man, the portability of the book, much like that of easel-painting, added much to the new cult of individualism (206). Because there was no longer the need to be a part of a University or monastery in order to have access to books and education, people began spending more and more time on their own, teaching themselves, and therefore, beseeming more and more independent.The distribution of a highly increased number of books referable to the invention of the press also facilitate d individualistic ideas by giving more people the opportunity to read, forcing them to interpret information themselves. In an oral culture, one is taught by the verbal explanations of others, allowing little opportunity for personal interpretation or for discovering oneself through thought and analysis of material, as is possible in a written culture. To the oral man the literal is inclusive, contains all possible meanings and levels, and through the introspection demanded by this increase in reading, individualism soared (McLuhan 111).With this increase in individualism came much higher levels of education and literacy. McLuhan, in discussing the advantages the press gave to learning, said this very natural pickpocket towards accessibility and portability went hand in hand with greatly increased reading speeds which were possible with uniform and repeatable type (207). Because the printing press used the same mold for multiple copies of the same letter, it was much less difficult to read than when it was requirement to accustom oneself with each scribes handwriting with which one was encountered.The significant decrease in the price of books that occurred in conjunction with the printing press paved the way for the education and rise of a new middle class. The book became a source of productive energy for a new breed of merchants and entrepreneurs, and where before these people had been held back from penetrating the higher levels of society, they could now afford to educate themselves (Kapr 20). This education led to a cycle that allowed the middle class to make more money, which allowed them to purchase even more books and further educate themselves. mend this new class of people did not have the social status of the aristocracy, Wyndham Lewis stated that birth or training, in this age that has been called that of bastards and adventurers, never mattered less (qtd. in McLuhan 119).Another important change that the invention of the printing press brought about was the new concept of visual modality production. out front the press, nobody had thought of the idea of creating something that could produce multiple copies of anything, so multiple copies of pages were just the first of endless possibilities. Just as print was the first fabricate thing, so it was the first uniform and repeatable commodity, and the realization that exact duplicates could be made of products other than books was one that has been acted on for centuries to bring us mass-production as we know it today (McLuhan 125).Clearly Gutenbergs invention of the printing press with movable type was a turning point in history from medieval to modern times. While its creation took many practice runs and a lot of trial-and-error, Gutenbergs incredible patience and determination paid off and helped to build the new culture of the Renaissance. The press was not just a means of copying the written page, but a vehicle for the concept of individualism, the rise of education a nd the new middle class, and an introduction to mass production.Gutenbergs Press and the Transition from Medieval to ModernThere are many ideas and concepts that facilitated the transition from the Medieval Era to a more modern, Renaissance society, but it can be argued that Johann Gutenbergs invention of the printing press was the most important factor to this change in Europe. The creation of the press was no easy task for Gutenberg he was faced with many obstacles. However, once created, the press benefited people around the world for centuries and continues to be a fundamental part of our society today.Before the invention of the printing press, books were extremely expensive, limiting education to the very wealthy. Because only the upper class could afford to purchase books, education was a means of separating the aristocracy from the lower classes. It was nearly impossible for the less fortunate to move up in society since they could not educate themselves.The reason books wer e so pricey was due to the methods employed to create each page individually. For a scribe to copy an entire novel by hand would take much patience and many hours. A common method of producing copies was for one man to read the original word by word, and a group of scribes would write each word as the reader said them. By this method, describes John Fontana in his work Mankinds Greatest Invention, one manuscript served as the source of reproduction for many copies when the scribes finished writing the last of the readers orally presented words (13). Not only was this time consuming, but the more copies that were made, the more errors were made.Eventually, a method of creating copies without such a high margin of error came about. People would hand carve blocks of wood with raised letters and cover the blocks with ink. Then they would place a sheet of paper on the block to make a copy. To make the process even more difficult, they had to carve the letters and words backwards so they would print correctly, and they had to make these letters look normal when reversed. Albert Kapr, in his book Johann Gutenberg The Man and his Invention, describes how a calligrapher had first to write out this text, which was traced as a mirror-image reversal on to a planed limewood plank and then cut out with a knife in such a way that the lettering was left as a raised surface (21). This method is called xylography, and while it was an improvement in that it reduced mistakes, carving a block of wood for each page to be printed was even more time consuming than writing the words by hand, and books remained as expensive as ever.Johann Gensfleisch Gutenberg, a goldsmith from Mainz, Germany, wanted to change all this. His idea was to replace the wood blocks with separate letters made of metal. One would be able to move the letters around to make words and sentences, and then reuse them. The key to this new method was not as is generally believed, the discovery of the value of movable type, for movable letters had been known and used for centuries, explains Fontana. It was the mechanism for making the types (28). This type of printing press was, in fact, already being used in China, but the technology to create such a machine was yet to be discovered in Europe.In working to build this machine, Gutenberg was faced with obstacle after obstacle. Just when he would think he might have mastered it, he would encounter another problem to solve. The invention of typography was not, noted Theo DeVinne in his work The Invention of Printing, the result of a happy thought or of a flash of inspiration. It was not born in a day . . . it was thought out and wrought out (376). To begin with, he had two main concerns finding a device that would keep the letters in place, and making a press that would print clearly.Gutenberg soon came up with a solution to the first of the two issues. He paid a carpenter for the use of his winepress, so as to have a suitable bed for a page of met al letters to rest on, and arranged the letters on one side of it (Fontana 22). He wanted to come up with a frame to hold the paper then when one was ready to print, they could twist a screw to press the paper up against the letters. The letters were to be created by pouring melted metal into a mold.Then Gutenberg came across several more problems. The first was the question of how to make all of the letters exactly the same thickness so that when they were pressed against the paper, they would print evenly. Also, he needed a solution for putting narrow letters on narrow metal bases and wide letters on wide bases. Using the same base for all letters would not only be impractical in that it would waste space, it would also make the words look uneven, with different sized spaces between letters. Regardless of the width of the character, each metal piece had to be the same height so the lines would not be crooked. DeVinne made the point that if the types of one character, as of the let ter a, should be made the merest trifle larger or smaller than its fellows of the same font, all the types, when composed, will show the consequences of the defect (52).Gutenberg came up with two brilliant ideas to solve the problems. In order to make all of the letters the same thickness, he made the mold the desired height and added extensions on the sides to catch any overflowing metal. That way he could make sure that they would not be too thick, and as long as he poured metal to the top, they would not be too thin. Once dried, this extra piece at the bottom of the metal letters opposite to the part the prints called the face, was easily broken off and smoothed before it was used for the printed page (Fontana 30). As for making the letters different widths, he had to make an adjustable mold. He first experimented using wood, and once perfected, he made one out of metal. He came up with a mold that consisted of two L-shaped pieces that could fit together, and slide back and forth to make the enclosed area larger or smaller.Here Gutenberg encountered further setbacks. The lead he had been using to make the letters was too soft-it was printing unevenly after just a few pages had been printed. Gutenberg solved the problem of making the typeface hard enough to resist pressure by mixing the lead with parts of tin and a substance that acted like antimony, hardening the metal and preventing expansion or shrinkage while the metal dried (Fontana 30). It also took a lot of searching to find ink that was the right consistency to leave a thin layer on paper. Should it be too thin, it would spread through the paper, and should it be too thick, it would clump and appear uneven.Upon fixing these problems, Gutenberg had come up with his first working printing press. With it, he printed copies of the first, second, and third editions of the Donatus. However, few people would purchase the pages because many considered his invention immoral, as they believed hand-written scri pt to be a sacred art. Also, there were still problems with the press. The type face varied too much-the lines would go from thin to thick and back to thin again, and the ink did not stick to paper well. DeVinne tells us that judged by modern standards, the types are ungraceful the text letters are too dense and black, and the capitals are of rude form, obscure, and too small for the text (421). The press itself took a lot of strength, especially when making multiple copies. All of these parts needed improvement, so Gutenberg got to work. He created more defined molds and stronger metal letters, which allowed for thinner printed lines.In hopes of eventually printing the Bible, Gutenberg worked to create letters that would, when placed together, resemble the handwriting of scribes. It was a difficult task, but he managed to finalize pages of beautiful lettering, each having two columns. The only problem was that only thirty-six lines would fit on a page, and Gutenberg wanted to fit f orty-two lines. Otherwise, the amount of pages to print the Bible would be much greater and more costly. If he had been only an ordinary dreamer about great inventions, believes DeVinne, he would have abandoned an enterprise so hedged in with mechanical and financial difficulties (416).It was around this time that Gutenberg met John Fust, who offered to help finance his project if they could form a partnership. Gutenberg agreed as he was greatly in need of a means of paying for new equipment to make a forty-two-page press. DeVinne reports that these small types were unique they were never used, so far as we know for any other work (406). This was most likely Gutenbergs greatest mistake, because when Fust did not get a quick return on his money, he sued Gutenberg for almost all of his equipment, including the new printing press. This was a set back from which Gutenberg never recovered, and though his invention greatly benefited many, he died a poor man.The printing press made a drama tic impact on European culture in many ways. One important way that it affected society was to bring about a higher level of individualism than had been before experienced. As Marshall McLuhan noted in his book The Gutenberg Galaxy The Making of Typographical Man, the portability of the book, much like that of easel-painting, added much to the new cult of individualism (206). Because there was no longer the need to be a part of a University or monastery in order to have access to books and education, people began spending more and more time on their own, teaching themselves, and therefore, becoming more and more independent.The distribution of a highly increased number of books due to the invention of the press also facilitated individualistic ideas by giving more people the opportunity to read, forcing them to interpret information themselves. In an oral culture, one is taught by the verbal explanations of others, allowing little opportunity for personal interpretation or for disco vering oneself through thought and analysis of material, as is possible in a written culture. To the oral man the literal is inclusive, contains all possible meanings and levels, and through the introspection demanded by this increase in reading, individualism soared (McLuhan 111).With this increase in individualism came much higher levels of education and literacy. McLuhan, in discussing the advantages the press gave to learning, said this very natural inclination towards accessibility and portability went hand in hand with greatly increased reading speeds which were possible with uniform and repeatable type (207). Because the printing press used the same mold for multiple copies of the same letter, it was much less difficult to read than when it was necessary to accustom oneself with each scribes handwriting with which one was encountered.The significant decrease in the price of books that occurred in conjunction with the printing press paved the way for the education and rise of a new middle class. The book became a source of productive energy for a new breed of merchants and entrepreneurs, and where before these people had been held back from penetrating the higher levels of society, they could now afford to educate themselves (Kapr 20). This education led to a cycle that allowed the middle class to make more money, which allowed them to purchase even more books and further educate themselves. While this new class of people did not have the social status of the aristocracy, Wyndham Lewis stated that birth or training, in this age that has been called that of bastards and adventurers, never mattered less (qtd. in McLuhan 119).Another important change that the invention of the printing press brought about was the new concept of mass production. Before the press, nobody had thought of the idea of creating something that could produce multiple copies of anything, so multiple copies of pages were just the first of endless possibilities. Just as print was the fi rst mass-produced thing, so it was the first uniform and repeatable commodity, and the realization that exact duplicates could be made of products other than books was one that has been acted on for centuries to bring us mass-production as we know it today (McLuhan 125).Clearly Gutenbergs invention of the printing press with movable type was a turning point in history from medieval to modern times. While its creation took many practice runs and a lot of trial-and-error, Gutenbergs incredible patience and determination paid off and helped to build the new culture of the Renaissance. The press was not just a means of copying the written page, but a vehicle for the concept of individualism, the rise of education and the new middle class, and an introduction to mass production.

Thursday, May 23, 2019

Comparing The Kite Runner and Angelas Ashes Essay

Depression cause a down fall on a persons emotion. This is easy to understand in the novels Angelas Ashes and The Kite Runner. In these two stories a person will encounter with the feelings of abandonment and end.In the kite contrabandist Amir was depressed that he and baba had to leave Kabul. He was wondering if he was going to forget his homeland along the line. He mentioned, I all knew the depot lived in me a perfectly encapsulated morsel of a good past a brush stroke of color on the gray, barren canvas that our keep had become The Russians invaded Afghanistan so baba and Amir had to leave to find safety. It was very(prenominal) hard for them to leave their homeland and go to Africa. They had to leave all their belongings and life canful n start fresh in a different country.In Angelas Ashes Angelas family McCourts they saw they were living in poor conditions .Angelas mother sent money so they al could board a ship to Ireland and start new and leave America behind. They lef t Brooklyn behind for zero because when they got to Ireland the living conditions stayed the same. Malachy spends all of his money at the bars and he always marchs u to work drunk. Now there are no more jobs in Ireland so he has to abandon his family and go to England to get a job there.Amir from The Kite Runner went back to Afghanistan to visit Rahim Khan because he was very sick. While he was telling him about his family he asked about Hassan so Rahim had to tell him the he got murdered by Taliban. Amir had lots of things going threw his head. He regrets not being in touch with him band for not sticking up h imp years ago. Baba became sick with cancer and he dint want any treatment, he wisent scared to die he knew he lived his life with many accomplishments. Amir father also died now he had no one to get help from when he need guidance.There were many deaths in Angelas Ashes. When Margret was born Malachy was able to bring food home. It was his only daughter and he was very happ y, but when she died everything turned to the worst. Later Oliver one of the twins died. They dialed with many deaths in their family but every time it was harder, Olivers death caused depression in the family.The Kite Runner and Angelas ashes have related themes, the theme of depression stands out, threw the loss of their loved ones, and abandoning their home land these two novels show different events that took in different parts of the world that made people depressed.

Wednesday, May 22, 2019

House of Hades

Now, in this attached instalment in the Heroes of Olympus, The House of Hades, Percy and Annabeth must cross the most miserable place impossible with the help of the Titan Bob, hile their demigod friends aboard the Argo II still fghts their way through the Mare Nostrum-or as mortals call it-the Mediterranean Sea. Both are stand up at crossroads. In about a month, the Roman demigods will march to Camp Half-Blood to begin war, and Gaea will finally rise.The stakes are high than ever in this adventure that dives into the depths of Tartarus. Our dear Uncle Rick has done it again. He has created the most gripping tale by far in his Percy Jackson world. The demigods non Just turn in to battle horrifying and terrifying monsters, but also their wn true fears something much worse than having a physical wound. Even though we have met some of the characters in the last series, they still never fail to surprise us in every chapter.Rick carefully developed their personalities and character istics, such as when Percy & Annabeths cognise was challenged as they travel through Tartarus, and also Nicos shocking revelation. Percy will also experience the consequences of what he has done in the past years that he popular opinion at first was the ight thing to do-consequences involving losing Annabeth forever. For the new characters, Rick showed us their different sides and aspects.We may think we really know them, but we will find them pass the different path than they might have expected. Each character was written with care, showing their deepest secrets, and the friendships & relationships aboard the Argo II continues to blossom. The House of Hades will leave readers and fans anticipating for the next instalment, The Blood of Olympus, which is set to release next fall 2014.

Tuesday, May 21, 2019

Math Curriculum Reform Issue

Among the publications learnt by students, Mathematics is among the subjects that atomic number 18 unpopular among the students. They perceive it a very hard subject especially to girls who think the subject should be reserved for boys. However, mathematics learning will be increased by the proposed National Council of Teachers of Mathematics in 1989. The computer programme proposed is very comp and is likely to improve mathematics performance that has deteriorated for sometime now.One of the near outstanding aspects that has contributed to student performance as a result of proposed National Council of Teachers of Mathematics in 1989 was referable to emphasis the curriculum has put on geometry and spatial. Learning of Geometry has developed students dread and cargo area as far as worlds geometric concepts are concerned. As far as children are concerned, they develop and enhance their ability to learn measurement ideas and learn number. These concepts also help students to b e able to understand advanced mathematics that are learnt at higher levels. 1Another most important concept that has improved student performance in Mathematics is because Geometry is introduced from Pre K to 12. It is very important for pile to support the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics that was introduced in 1989 since it enhanced students performance in the subject. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics curriculum has promoted egalitarianism among the students as this was the main aim and objective of its development.The proposed Mathematics by National Council of Teachers of Mathematics is due to the fact that the ability of the student to be able to solve problems after studying the Mathematics. This is because, in the authentic world for one to survive comfortably, one has to go with the technology which is comes hand in hand with fellowship of Mathematics.The curriculum proposed is likely to promote students learning skill since they removed basic skill s that were unneeded and instead they focus on most important rewards since they knew calculator and computers would eliminate calculation which is tedious.Another issue that can make us to support the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics curriculum is that previously, the curriculum had not been focused on all students as it had only if focused on analytical, deductive and linear analytical that only met White (Anglo) learning style. For this case, the main aim and objective of the proposed National Council of Teachers of Mathematics was to develop a comprehensive curriculum that would cater for the needs of all students. 2Currently, student performance in Mathematics has improved and the subject is no longer perceived as a hard subject like it used to be previously. The subject is now popular even to girls and it is should be encouraged since knowledge in Mathematics enhances understanding of other subjects.ReferencesNational Council of Teachers of Mathematics (1989) Cur riculum and EvaluationStandards for crop Mathematics. Reston, VA NCTM.National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (1991) Worthwhile numerical Tasks In Professional Standards for Teaching Mathematics (p. 25). Reston, VA National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.1 National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (1989) Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics. Reston, VA NCTM. 2 National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (1991) Worthwhile Mathematical Tasks in Professional Standards for Teaching Mathematics (p. 25). Reston, VA National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

Monday, May 20, 2019

Hammerlick Brewing Case Study

Hemrlick brew Running judgement HEMRLICK BREWING CASE STUDY Hemrlick create from raw material Case Study Choice of Distributor 1 Hemrlick brew 2 Hamrlick brew had been operating at a loss since the introduction of its critic eachy acclaimed Saxonbrau beer two days ago. The beau monde face up an urgency to ontogenesis revenue from gross sales and demolish even. It considered selling the Saxonbrau beer through distributors, as a marketing strategy to bring near remunerationability and increase Saxonbraus branding as a super subvention beer.To do so, Hamrlick brew had to first determine if there was a dispersal agreement that would meet its needs, early(a)wise it could continue distributing its products by itself. Hamrlick create from raw material considered different diffusion agreements from distributors Kalagwine Corp, Bistwells and Hansrife Beverages, and included the excerpt of continuing direct dissemination of its products. Each of these options had different st rengths and weaknesses in their abilities to improve the revenue of Saxonbrau beer.After analysing the strengths and weaknesses of the quartet options, Bistwell provided the outflank fit in meeting Hamrlick create from raw stuffs needs to promote the Saxonbrau brand, goopimise the value of Saxonbrau beer, and hone the companys retail anatomical structure. Branding By branding Saxonbrau as a super indemnity or an import and specialty beer were, Hamrlick brew could be certain that the demand for its beer would increase. Sales of the super agio and the import and specialty beer fractions had been projected to grow by 15% in 2011.Also, the market size of this segment was worth $7. 6 billion in 2010, with no single brewery dominating the market space. Also, since Hamrlick Brewing aimed to increase Saxonbrau beers sales and revenue, and given the limited production capacity, Hamrlick Brewing could aim to sell Saxonbrau at the highest realizable harm possible. As a result, Hamrl ick Brewing Hemrlick Brewing 3 may non want run attractive price competitiveness, and so it would need to differentiate Saxonbrau in terms of branding.If Saxonbrau were to be continually sentimented as super grant or import and specialty, it would command a higher(prenominal) price premium, since consumers in the super premium beer category are slight price sensitive and are willingly to impart more for quality. In addition, Saxonbraus modern 61% brand loyalty is in any case higher than the persistence average of 41%. This would differentiate Saxonbrau beer further, and protect it from price competition. Hamrlick had to avoid the situations where Saxonbrau may be congealed to compete as a premium or popular beer, even though the demand for these beers was generally higher.If Saxonbrau was marketed and priced in the premium or popular segment, it would face very intense competition in terms of branding and pricing. Beer brands in this segment are not highly differentiated f rom another. Also, nodes consuming beer of this segment are relatively price sensitive and tend to make purchasing decisions based mainly on price. Large brewers give care SAB moth miller could afford to compete on price, but not Hamrlick Brewing, as it did not perk up the cost structure advantage to do so.If it insisted on offering competitive prices, it would run into even deeper losses and may be forced to shut down, as shown in its income statement (Exhibit 1). Of the one-third distributors, Bistwell intended and was roughly able to position Saxonbrau within the super premium beer category in the Chicago market, given its previous success in developing the market for super-premium beers. This is in line with Hamrlicks intentions for Saxonbraus branding. Hamrlick Brewing could also be fancied to be able to provide for appropriate branding.However, Hansrife Beverages marketing strategy intended to position Saxonbrau within the premium Hemrlick Brewing 4 beer category in the Chicago market, which would do more harm than good to Saxonbraus sales. In addition, even though Kalagwine also proposed to establish Saxonbrau as speciality beer and its diffusion network was greater, expanding to other parts of Illinois and neighbouring states, it would not be able to secure Saxobraus branding. Kalagwine specialised in distributing wine and it did not have any prior experience in beer diffusion.As a relatively late entrant to the beer diffusion business in an already mature industry, Kalagwine would most likely face resistance from premium tipsiness outlets and strong drink stores for display and storage space. In consideration of the above psychoanalysis, other than Hamrlick Brewing distributing its products by itself, Bistwells is the best- positioned amongst the triple distributors to promote Saxonbraus branding in the super-premium beer market. Value for Customer, Collaborator, and CompanyBesides branding, cost structures and the resultant margins for each stakeholder in the distribution assembly lines are also crucial to deciding a distributor is the impact of the decision on the cost structures and the resultant margins for each of the stakeholders in the channel. The cost structure should encourage and provide values for all the stakeholders in the distribution channel, namely the customer, collaborator and company (Exhibit 3). If any of the stakeholders does not enjoy any perceive value in the form of profit margin or lower pricing, then the demand, and subsequently in the sales, for the product may suffer.In analysing the cost structures of various distribution channels (Exhibit 4), Bistwells provided the highest overall value for the customers, for themselves as distributors and for Hamrlick Brewing. In terms of customer value, Hansrife offered the lowest price for the retailers at $108 and $29. 5 per keg and per case respectively. However, Hansrife Hemrlick Brewing 5 largely distributed popular beers and intended to mark et Saxonbrau beer as being premium, instead of super-premium. Such a position would dilute Saxonbraus brand and subject it to unnecessary competition with other more set up and popular beers.As Saxonbrau was already recognized as a super-premium brand and had a loyal customer base, customers were like to value its branding and perceived quality more than the competitiveness of the price. Based on the previous analysis on branding, Bistwells, other than Hamrlick Brewings own distribution, would be the best of the three distributors to deliver customer value. In terms of value for collaborators, after taking into account the shared cost of distribution, the distributors that would enjoy the highest margins were Bistwells in its sales of kegs (56%), and Kalagwine in its sales of kegs and cases (56% and 73%).Both distributors sets of margins were estimated to be well above the industry norm of 33%. With this high value from distributing Saxonbraus beer, the distributors would be more i nclined towards promoting the product, which would be to Hamrlick Brewings advantage. Naturally, Bistwells and Kalagwine would be more motivated than Hansrife. In terms of value for Hemrlick Brewing, Bistwell offered the highest value for the company as it provided the highest price to mickle (PTT) of $92. 70 and $24. 30 per keg and case respectively after sharing 25% of the significant distribution costs.Bistwells cost structure also provided value to the Hemrlick Brewing by eliminating the latters distribution costs, if it were to continue self-distributing. The savings could be up to $779,000 per annum, and this was a sizeable sum that is lowering overall profit margin. Considering all of the above, Bistwell offers the best overall distribution option, maximising all three types of value for customer, collaborator and company, Hemrlick Brewing Retail Structure The loyal customers that Saxonbraus branding attracted favoured off-premise retailers.Feedback from these customers indi cated that they sought variety when purchasing Saxonbrau beer, and off-premise retailers, like liquor stores, large retailers and the smaller mom-pops stores, could provide the variety of alcohol. Also, surveys showed that loyal customers are willing to drive to a bordering suburb for these offpremise retailers to purchase large lot sizes of Saxonbrau beer. Besides the potentials and customer preference, Hemrlick Brewing had also attracted demand from offpremise retailers like both(prenominal) major grocery stores.Even though there was an indication of high demand and potential in offpremise retailers, Hemrlick Brewing totally had 30% of its sales from off-premise retailers, way below the average in Chicago area (69%). Thus, in order to increase revenue and sales, Hemrlick Brewing could place more emphasis on off-premise retailers. All three distribution companies and Hemrlick Brewing itself could emphasise more on off-premise retailers. However, Bistwells offered the most favour able conditions amongst all the options.First of all, given that Hemrlick Brewing was a small company that was promoting the sales of only one brand of beer, many retailers would be less(prenominal) willing to spend time liaising Hemrlick Brewing, as compared to distribution companies which had several brands to offer. Also, off-premise retailers like large outlet stores were uncontrollable for a small company like Hemrlick Brewing to penetrate. At the same time, mom-pop stores required expansive distribution networks to reach, which only established distribution companies would be able to achieve. As a result, Hemrlick 6 Hemrlick BrewingBrewing would have to blaspheme on other distributors if it would like to reach out more to off-premise retailers. Secondly, Bistwells had maintained a good descent with on- and offpremise retailers, with a track-record of 80% sales through these retailers, whereas Kalagwine mainly focused mainly on on-premises sales, and Hansrife did not have a specific track-record selling through these retailers. Bistwells successful experience in off-premise retail could help Hemrlick Brewing. Thirdly, Bistwells had the largest sales force compared to the rest of the distributors.Size of the sales force of a distributor is very important for penetrating the off-premise retailers, as they compete for limited shelf spaces. Bistwells had 40 sales representatives focusing on Chicago selling beers, whereas Hansrife only had 29 in Chicago area. Kalagwine had 80 sales representatives covering 17 cities/areas, but it had less sales representatives in Chicago area than Bistwells. Last but not least, from the various distributors marketing visualizes, Bistwells showed confidence in boosting sales through grocery stores.In grocery stores, the most common method to assist customers to choosing Saxonbrau beer was through position of sales displays. Bistwells had a plan to develop and supply such displays. Kalagwine did not have a applicable plan and Hansrifes plan, though similar, would cost Hemrlick Brewing more than Bistwells marketing would. Moreover, for Hemrlick Brewing, implementing the same promotion plan itself would cost even higher than Bistwells, as it would be full cost, as opposed to Bistwells discount of 75% if Hemrlick Brewing were to distribute through Bistwells.Considering Hemrlick Brewings need to emphasis more on off-premise retailing so it could boost its sales and revenue, Bistwell had the most favourable conditions to help Hemrlick Brewing do so. 7 Hemrlick Brewing 8 new(prenominal) Considerations After analysing all the different strategies that are aimed at increasing revenue and sales, Bistwells would be the distribution channel that Hemrlick Brewing should take up. However, choosing Bistwells would only increase some revenue, and even after factoring in the increased revenue, Hemrlick Brewing would still suffer from deficit in the same year.Hemrlick Brewings low operating efficiency was a big con sideration. Based on Hemrlick Brewings current cost structure and operating gross margin of 6. 7%, it would take 21 years to break even. If Hemrlick Brewing could optimize its operations to a 40% margin, the company would break even within less than 6 years. With the purpose of meeting profitability target, Harmlick Brewing should strongly consider increasing revenue and decrease costs more aggressively.To increase revenue, on top of taking advantage of the forecasted 15% growth in the market, Hemrick Brewing could divert its attention from holding special events to offpremise sales. In this way, the cost of special events could also be used to yield higher returns from the off-premise retail sales, especially when there was comparatively lower competition there, higher profit margin and higher ready demand there. Besides, Hemrlick Brewing no longer had to worry about promoting the brand using the special events, because Bitswells would be in a more cost-effective and experienced po sition to do so.More rigorous strategies to reduce costs would include reducing the cost of raw materials, administration and distribution. Hemrlick Brewing could make use of just-noticeable difference to replace some of the ingredients for Saxobrau bear. Also, the general cost and cost of administration summed up to US$ 823, 244 or 30% of the total cost, which could be dramatically reduced if the company management could Hemrlick Brewing 9 evaluate if the administrative processes were efficient. If not, a retrenchment would be able to bring down the functional cost and increase the margins.The distribution costs that were shared with Bitswells could also be reduced if the companycollaborator relationship grew stronger to the heading that the costs that would be bore by Hemrlick Brewing could be further discounted. Summary Hemrlick Brewing faced the issue of financial deficit and was in need of increasing its revenue and sales. Mark Hemrlick had thought the speedy decision that n eeded to be made was to determine the most profitable distribution channel from the four options available, based on their abilities to increase revenue and support Saxonbraus branding.Bitswells was then singled out as the most favourable distribution channel as it was able to strengthen Saxonbraus branding, and it provided the highest overall value for the customer, for itself and for Hemrlick Brewing. Bitswells was also able to best support Hemrlick Brewings need to focus on off-premise retailers. Bitswells proved to be best choice out of the four. However, Mark Hemrlick should not stop at deciding which distribution channel to adopt. Even with Bitswells increasing Hemrlick Brewings revenue and helping to share existing distribution costs, the company would still be in deficit for 21 years.He would need to consider other more forceful strategies if he planned to break even within a shorter timeframe. Hemrlick Brewing 10 Exhibit 1 Income Statement Forecast Current Distribution Und er Bistwells Breakeven Point Sales Revenue $1,977,261 $1,313,553 Less scrape up Tax (4%) winnings Revenue $80,115 $1,897,146 $52,542 $1,261,011 $30,832,220 (2) $1,233,289 $29,598,931 Operational Costs Cost of Goods $1,214,480 $1,214,480 General & Admin Selling and Distribution Net Cost $823,244 $704,024 $2,741,748 $823,244 $0 $2,037,724 $28,458,139 (1) $823,244 $0 29,281,383 Other Income Interest Expense Interest Income Other Total Other Income -$382,388 $1,943 $62,897 -$317,548 -$382,388 $1,943 $62,897 -$317,548 -$382,388 $1,943 $62,897 -$317,548 Net Income -$1,162,150 -$1,094,261 $0 (1) Cost of Revenue is estimated for the break-even scenario is calculated using an gross operating margin of 6. 7%, dividing the Distribution Under Bistwells COGS by Sales Revenue. (2) If this revenue growth is based on an assumption of 15% growth per year, it would take approximately 21 years to arrive at this revenue.Hemrlick Brewing Exhibit 2 Calculation of unit production. Old prices under self- distribution were $144. 5 and 36. 5 for kegs and cases. Under Bistwells, these prices would be adjusted to $92. 7 and $24. 5. Old prices Units Revenue under new distribution price Kegs $116,178 804 $74,530 Bottles $1,861,083 50988 $1,239,022 Total Revenue $1,977,261 $1,313,553 Assuming max capacity of 12,500 liters or 804 barrels, the rest being bottles Exhibit 3 Value for Channel Participants 11 Hemrlick Brewing Exhibit 3 Value for Channel Participants 12

Sunday, May 19, 2019

My first job experience

I appreciate the most. I feel the individual who I delight in most is A. R. Raman. He is an composer, vocalist lyricist, medication call forr, performer and donor. For the duration of my life, symphony has dependably been a meaningful Impact. Music Is an exceptionally Imperative piece of our live, and the Individuals who make music ar extremely awful In this world. I appreciate A. R. Raman In light of the way that being a musical artist Is an extraordinary vocation on the grounds that the compensation is great, hard specialist and he got many awards.Most importantly, Raman is the extraordinary music composers in India. He is the writer and also an author and artist. Raman gets compensated as a rate of the graphic symbol his songs gets sold. He gets about RSI. 2 to 4 score for one film. The way it meets expectations for a top music author is this he charges around 10 to 20 lake rupees for every tune If there are half-dozen tunes, he gets paid RSI. 60 lake to 1 to 2 score. In Dalton to this Raman lives up to expectations hard to accomplish his objectives. For lesson when he Is nine his father was dead from that point he starts playing console and orchestrates groups, for example, Roots.He comprehended the console, piano, synthesizer, reed organ and guitar. He got many awards in India as well as in different nations too wish well Oscar for best melody in Slum dog Millionaire. In spite of the fact that A. R. Raman acquire a normal compensation of around 2 to 4 score for every film, this is just following 10-15 long time of being in the music business. Before they achieve this pay, most artists likely battle Just to make a proper living and pay the bills. But at that point then there are plentiful, there are numerous different reasons, other than compensation, his dedicated nature and getting recompenses for his diligent work.

Saturday, May 18, 2019

Personal Ethic statement Essay

Do you agree with the results of your Work Culture Preferences activity? Does it match with what you considered your ideal model ending?Yes, I agree with the results of my Work Culture Preferences activity. The result matches with my considered ideal wok culture. My result was being senior high powered, and teamwork centered, and expert. I agree with being High powered because I like to try different jobs and acquire new skills. These skills will help me become more competitive in a demanding job market. close to demanding jobs are teamwork centered and require being in the creative atmosphere. Im glad that I received this result to see my strong points in the work culture. This will help me what to expect in a career that Im looking forward to.Do you think there is a congressship between effective study habits and techniques and being successful in those work cultures? Explain your answers.Yes, I think there is a relationship between effective study habits and techniques of be ing successful in those work cultures by being successful in those cultures. Study habits and techniques are all part of situation taking they are extremely helpful in remembering important detail about a particular subject. By using effective study habits and techniques, can tremendously help you when taking examine or test. While taking a test, you can remember from the top of your head of what you had wrote down for examine to answer that question. In work culture, it will help you memorize your work procedure and guidelines.What was your ethical attitude as identified by the ELI, including your blind spot, strengths, weaknesses, and values?My ethical perspective as identified by the ELI was prioritizing the value of autonomy over comparability. My concern is to protect individual rights and ensure anyone is treated fairly. I trust that my nigh is good enough, leaving problems unresolved for everyone else. By doing this, Im too focused on good motive and dont see the prob lems in my method. My strengths are able to make amenable choices that benefit many different individualsat the same time. Thinking through problem carefully and interrogation options to find the one that will fulfill my duties. My values are to make sure my actions are good for the community as a whole.How do personal ethics play a role in academics? How might they play a role in the employment? Personal ethics play a role in academics by setting an atmosphere of truthfulness and trust. This help to ensure every finish we make is one that upholds values. They are the decision that make and must continue to lure of the easy dash out, by making ourselves better. Personal ethics also play a role in workplace by keeping our work or ideas original to us. This challenges corporation to translate their mission statement into every employee. Leading corporation to higher performance for business and society. In addition, labor employee and customer trustworthy relation for truthful b usiness and services to the company.What connection is there to your ethical perspective and your ideal work culture? The connection within my ethical perspective and work culture is they both require fairness and equality in both. The support of each other as a team benefits and the success of the workplace. It would also development the want to be at the workplace and part of the team. Creating an environment that encourages people to persuade opinions and creative atmosphere. These connections promote unity for subordinate, co-worker, and supervisors to work and focus on task at hand. It both encourages people to share and express their opinions. Increasing likelihood of rapid promotion and other benefits to each.